The measurement model of historical awareness

Aisiah Aisiah, Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia
Suhartono Suhartono, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
Sumarno Sumarno, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia


The study aimed to develop a measurement model of historical awareness through a research and development model adopted from the Plomp model. Historical awareness was measured through four components, namely: knowledge of historical events, understanding of historical research method, meaning of historical events, and usefulness of history. The development procedures of the development model included a preliminary investigation in the form of literary study about the constructs of historical awareness. In the design stage, the researcher designed a conceptual model and a hypothetical measurement model about historical awareness. Then, the researcher performed a test construction namely assembling the test instrument for measuring historical awareness. Eventually, the researcher administered a test, did evaluation and made revision. The test in the study referred to the empirical testing of the instrument, while the evaluation in the study referred to the efforts to identify the obstacles that the participants encountered within the empirical testing of the instrument in order to revise it. The empirical testing of the instrument involved history teacher-candidates at Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta and Universitas Negeri Padang. The data were gathered through the test by using the measurement instrument in the form of associative multiple choice test. For the construct analysis, the researcher implemented confirmatory factor analysis by means of Lisrel 8.80 program. The results of the analysis show that the χ2 = 121.98, the p-value = 0.11, RMSEA = 0.043. In other words, the measurement model of historical awareness that had been developed was supported by the empirical data.


historical awareness; measurement model; knowledge of historical event; historical research method; meaning of historical event; usefulness of history

Full Text:



Allen, M. J., & Yen, W.M. (1979). Introduction to measurement theory. Monterey, CA: Brooks/ Cole.

Ankersmit, F.R. (1987). Refleksi tentang sejarah: Pendapat-pendapat modern tentang filsafat sejarah [Reflection on history: Modern opinions on historical philosophy]. (D. Hartoko, Trans.). Jakarta: Gramedia.

Ata, B. (2009). The Turkish prospective his-tory teachers’ understanding of analogy in history education. International Journal of Historical Learning, Teaching and Research, 8(1), 6-18.

Barash, J. A. (2003). Martin Hiedegger and problem of historical meaning. New York, NY: Fordham University Press.

Cohen, M. R. (1961). The meaning of human history. Chicago, IL: The Open Court.

Denison, B. J. (2011). History, time, meaning and memory: Idea for sociology of religious. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV.

Elliott, J. (2003). The limits of historical knowledge. European Review, 11(1), 21-25. doi:10.1017/S1062798703000036

Ghozali, I. (2008). Structual equation modeling: Teori, konsep, dan aplikasi. Semarang: Badan Penerbit Universitas Dipone-goro.

Gleencross, A. (2010, October). Historical awareness in international relation theory: A hidden disciplinary dialogue. Paper pre-sented in millennium conference at Universitas Berden.

Gottschalk, L. (1956). Understanding history: A premier of historical method. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

Grant, S.G. (2003). History lessons: Teaching, learning, and testing in US high school classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate.

Greenberg, D. (1991). Metahistory of everyday: Historical awareness in lived existence (set in late eighteenth century Britain) (Unpublish-ed master’s thesis). University of British Columbia, Canada.

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hariyono. (1995). Mempelajari sejarah secara efektif. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.

Heller, A. (1982). A theory of history. London: Routledge & Keagan Paul.

Hendryadi. (2014). Structural equation modeling dengan Lisrel 8.80: Pedoman untuk pemula. Yogyakarta: Kaukaba.

Husband, C., Kitson A., & Pendry, A. (2003). Understanding history teaching. Philadel-phia, PA: Open Universitu Press.

Ministry of Education and Culture. (2012). Pemikiran tentang pembinaan kesadar-an sejarah.

Kartodirdjo. (1986). Ungkapan-ungkapan filsafat sejarah Barat dan Timur: Penjelasan berdasarkan kesadaran sejarah. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Kartodirdjo. (1992). Pendekatan ilmu sosial dalam metodologi sejarah. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Kartodirdjo. (1993). Pembangunan bangsa. Yogyakarta: Aditya Media.

Khine (ed.). (2013). Contemporary approaches to research in learning innovations: Application of structural equation modeling in educational research and practice. Rotterdam: Sense.

Kitson, A., Husbands, C., & Steward, S. (2011). Teaching and learning history 11-18: Understanding the past. New York, NY: Open University Press McGraw-Hill Education.

Kolbl, C. & Straub, J. (2001). Historical consciousness in youth. Theoretical and exemplary empirical analyses. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 2(3). Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research. net/index.php/fqs/article/view/904.

Korber, A. (2015). Historical awareness, historical competencies – and beyond? Some conceptual development within German history didactics. 56 S, URN: urn:nbn:de:0111-pedocs-108118.

Kreuzer, M. (2010). Historical knowledge and quantitative analysis: The case of the origins of proportional representation. American Political Science Review, 104(2), 369-392.

Kuntowijoyo. (2013). Pengantar ilmu sejarah. Yogyakarta: Tiara Wacana.

Kusnendi. (2008.) Model-model persamaan struktural. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Latief, J. A. (2006). Manusia, filsafat dan sejarah. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Lukacs, J. (1968). Historical awareness: Remember-ed past. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Mardapi, D. (2007). Teknik penyusunan instrumen tes dan nontes. Yogyakarta: Mitra Cendikia.

Mardapi, D. (2012). Pengukuran, penilaian dan evaluasi pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Nuha Medika.

Margono, D. (2013). Aplikasi analisis faktor konformatori untuk menentukan reli-abilitas multidimensi. Statistika, 13(1), 17-24.

Mazabow, G. (2003). The development of historical awareness in the teaching of history in South Africa School (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of South Africa, Pretoria.

Paska, L. M. (2010). Does film affect learning engangement?: historical inquiry and the document-based question in middle school social studies classroom (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Albany University, New York, NY.

Plomp, T. & van de Wolde, J. (1982). The general model for systematical problem solving. In T. Plomp (Eds.). Design of educational and training (in Dutch). Utrecht: Lemma. Netherland. Faculty of Educational Science and Technology, University of Twente. Enschede the Netherlands.

Pompa, L. (1990). Human nature and historical knowledge: Hume, Hegel and Vico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rosenlund, D. (2011). Subject construction, assess-ment and aligment in history education. Paper presented at the 39th Congres of NPFP/NERA in Malmo University, Malmo, Sweden.

Russel, W.B. & Pellegrino, A. (2008). Constructing meaning from historical content: A research study. Journal of Social Studies Research, 32(2), 3-15.

Schumacker, R.E., & Lomax, R.G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling. (3rded.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Sjamsuddin, H. (2012). Metodologi sejarah. Yogyakarta: Ombak.

Suhartono. (2010). Teori dan metodologi sejarah. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Thorp, R. (2014). Historical awareness, historical media, and history education. Historiska medier. ISBN 978-91-7601-077-8 [electronic version].

Topolski, J. (1976). Methodology of history. (O. Wojta-siewicz, Trans.). Boston, MA: D. Reidel.

Tosh, J. (1984). The pursuit of history: Aim, method, and new directions in the study of modern history (1rd ed.). New York, NY: Longman.

Tosh, J. (2002). The pursuit of history: Aim, method, and new directions in the study of modern history (3rd ed.). London: Longman Pearson Education.

Tucker, A. (Eds). (2009). A companion to the philosophy of history and historiography. Chihester West Sussex: Blackwell.

Widhiarso, W. & Mardapi, D. (2010). Komparasi ketepatan estimasi koefisien reliabilitas teori skor murni klasik.Jurnal Penelitian dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 14(1). Retrieved from

Wineburg, S. (2006). Berpikir historis: Memetakan masa depan mengajarkan masa lalu. (M. Maris, Trans.). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University.

Wijanto. S.H. (2008). Structural equation modeling dengan lisrel 8.8: Konsep & tutorial. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Find REID (Research and Evaluation in Education) on:


ISSN 2460-6995 (Online)

View REiD Visitor Statistics