General intelligence versus multiple intelligence: Social and cognitive development in visual arts education

Faizal Erlangga Makawi, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia


This research discusses implementing general intelligence theory in the Visual Arts Education Department to improve students’ creativity from social and cognitive development. The two most relevant approaches in visual arts education are general intelligence and multiple intelligence. This research selects general intelligence theory as the primary approach rather than multiple intelligence theory. Therefore, social development and cognitive development are discussed. This research method is a type of literature review, and the topic of study includes social development, cognitive development, growth mindset, rewards, intervention, and feedback. Moreover, the sources came from book chapters and articles from Elsevier,  Sage, Routledge, etc. As a result, the findings of this research show (1) there are five general intelligence and nine multiple intelligence approaches; (2) Social development shows two approaches: active learning which consists of analyzing, defining, creating, and evaluating, while critical thinking consists of reading, writing, interpreting, and testing; (3) Cognitive development shows four approaches; growth mindset that consist of change perception and hardworking, rewards consist of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, the intervention consists of consultation and motivation, and finally feedback consists of direct feedback and immediate feedback. Using a psychological approach to general intelligence, this teaching method in Visual Arts Education will improve students’ creativity.


Kecerdasan umum versus kecerdasan ganda: Perkembangan sosial dan kognitif dalam pendidikan seni rupa

Penelitian ini mendiskusikan implementasi dari jeneral intelligen dalam Program Studi Pendidikan Seni Rupa, yang bertujuan untuk mengembangkan kreativitas mahasiswa dari perkembangan sosial dan kognitif. Dalam pendidikan seni rupa, terdapat dua pendekatan yang paling relevan yaitu kecerdasan umum dan kecerdasan ganda. Dalam penelitian ini, teori kecerdasan umum dipilih sebagai pendekatan utama daripada teori kecerdasan ganda. Oleh karena itu, perkembangan sosial dan perkembangan kognitif didiskusikan. Metode penelitian ini adalah jenis tinjauan literatur, topiknya terdiri dari perkembangan sosial, perkembangan kognitif, pikiran berkembang, penghargaan, intervensi, dan umpan balik. Kemudian, sumbernya berasal dari buku chapter dan artikel dari journal bereputasi internasional seperti Elsevier, Sage, Routledge dan seterusnya.. Sehingga, temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan; (1) terdapat lima pendekatan kecerdasan umum dan sembilan pendekatan kecerdasan ganda; (2) Dalam perkembangan sosial terdapat dua pendekatan yaitu pembelajaran aktif yang terdiri dari menganalisis, menentukan, menciptakan, dan mengevaluasi, sementara pemikiran kritis terdiri dari membaca, menulis, menafsirkan, dan menguji;(3) Perkembangan kognitif menunjukkan empat pendekatan yaitu pola pikir berkembang yang terdiri dari mengubah persepsi dan kerja keras, imbalan yang terdiri dari motivasi ekstrinsik dan intrinsik, intervensi yang terdiri dari konsultasi dan motivasi, dan akhirnya umpan balik yang terdiri dari umpan balik langsung dan umpan balik segera. Metode pengajaran dalam Pendidikan Seni Rupa dari pendekatan psikologis kecerdasan umum akan meningkatkan kreativitas siswa.


general intelligence; multiple intelligencel; social development; cognitive development; visual arts education

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