COLLABORATIVE-COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TO IMPROVE THEOLOGY STUDENTS’ CHARACTERS: IS IT EFECTIVE?

GP Harianto, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Excelsius, Indonesia
Rusijiono Rusijiono, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
Siti Masitoh, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
WH Setyawan, Universitas Islam Kadiri, Indonesia

Abstract


The Collaborative-Cooperative Learning Model (CCL) helps improve students’ characters. This study is aimed at finding out the effectiveness of the CCL instructional model in improving the characters of the theology students in the subject matter class Self Development. The study used the quasi-experimental research design. The research sample consisted of 58 students of the Surabaya Excelsius Institute of Theology. Data were collected by way of a test in a pre-test and posttest for the experiment and control groups and analyzed by way of an independent sample t-test on the SPSS software program of Amos 25. Results show that (1) the CCL model is found to be able to improve students’ characters. Experts’ reviews conclude that the CCL syntax can be categorized as having innovative aspects based on the rationality model on the score of 3.29; (2) The CCL model is found to be effective in improving students’ characters by the Mann-Whitney test (sig. = 0,012) and the paired sample t-tes (sig. = 0.000) showing a significant difference in the mean scores; (3) the CCL model can improve the characters of self-discipline, social discipline, and religious discipline  in the theology students in the subject matter class Self Development and can be used for subject matter classes with the same characteristics, be followed-up by research in wider subject-matter contexts, and be integrated  with research from other academic fields.


Keywords


CCL model of instruction; group learning; theology; character

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams, A. R. (2013). Cooperative Learning Effects on the Classroom. Michigan: Northern Michigan University.

Akbar, S. (2013). Instrumen Perangkat Pembelajaran. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Akinnuwesi, B.A., Odumabo, A. & Aribisala, B.S. (2020). Knowledge grid: An intelligent system for collaboration and knowledge management in Nigerian Universities. Data Science Journal, 19(1), 1-12. http://doi.org/10.5334/dsj-2020-002.

Amiruddin, A. (2019). Pembelajaran kooperatif dan kolaboratif. Journal of Education Science, 5(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3314/jes.v5i1.357.

Arends, R. I. (2008). Learning to Teach. Pustaka Pelajar.

Attle, S., & Baker, B. (2007). Cooperative learning in a competitive environment: Classroom applications. International Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, 19(1), 77-83. http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe/.

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191.

Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2014). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty. John Wiley & Sons.

Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The Strength Model of Self-Control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 351-355. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00534.x.

Benninga, J. S., Berkowitz, M. W., Kuehn, P., & Smith, K. (2003). The relationship of character education implementation and academic achievement in elementary schools. Journal of Research in Character Education, 1(1), 19–32. https://www.scirp.org/(S(351jmbntvnsjt1aadkposzje))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx?ReferenceID=1394844.

Cabrera, A. F., Crissman, J. L., Bernal, E. M., Nora, A., Terenzini, P. T., & Pascarella, E. T. (2002). Collaborative learning: Its impact on college students’ development and diversity. Journal of College Student Development, 43(1), 20–34. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ642665.

Calhoun, J. F. dan Acocella, J. R. (1990). Psychology of Adjusment and Human Relationship. McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Chaplin, J.P. (2001). Kamus Lengkap Psikologis. Jakarta: Grafika Persada.

Caulfield, S. L., & Caroline, H. P. (2006). Teaching social science reasoning and quantitative literacy: The role of collaborative groups. Teaching Sociology, 34(1), 39–53. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1177/0092055X0603400104.

Coakley, J. J. (1994). Competition in sports: does it prepare people for life? Sport in Society: Issues and Controversies, 5(1), 77–103. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19941808550.

Cresswel, J. W. (2010). Research Design: Pendekatan Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Mixed. Pustaka Pelajar.

Davidson, N., & Major, C. H. (2014). Boundary crossings: Cooperative learning, collaborative learning, and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3&4), 7-55. http// http://northweststate.edu/wp-content/uploads/files/BoundaryCrossings.pdf.

de Winter, J. F. C., & Dodou, D. (2010). Five-Point likert items: t test versus Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 15(1), 11. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.7275/bj1p-ts64.

Dewantara, K. H. (1977). Bagian Pertama: Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Majelis Luhur Persatuan Taman Siswa.

Gabriele, A. J. (2007). The influence of achievement goals on the constructive activity of low achievers during collaborative problem solving. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 121–141. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1348/000709905X89490.

Gandawijaya, L.E. (2017). The correlation between Self-Control and Electronic Aggression on Social Media users in Emerging Adulthood. Thesis: Psychology Departement, Sanata Dharma University. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34270.74568.

Guvenc, H. (2010). The Effects of cooperative learning and learning journals on teacher candidates’ self-regulated learning. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 10(3), 1477–1487. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ919859.

Hamruni, M. (2012). Strategi Pembelajaran. Insan Madani.

Hossain, M. A., Tarmizi, R. A., & Ayub, A. F. M. (2012). Collaborative and cooperative learning in Malaysian mathematics education. Journal on Mathematics Education, 3(2), 103–114. https://doi.org/10.22342/jme.3.2.569.103-114.

Huda, M. (2011). Cooperative Learning: Metode, Teknik, Struktur, dan Model Penerapan. Pustaka Pelajar.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1994). The nuts and Bolts of Cooperative Learning. Interaction Book Co.

Kalyuga, S. & Liu, T. C. (2015). Guest editorial: Managing cognitive load in technology-based learning environments. Educational Technology & Society, 18(4), 1–8. https://www.j-ets.net/collection/published-issues/18_4.

Laal, M., & Ghodsi, S. M. (2012). Benefits of collaborative learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31(1), 486–490. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.091.

Lee, L. (2008). Focus-on-form through collaborative scaffolding in expert-to-novice online interaction. Language Learning & Technology, (12)3, 53–72. http://dx.doi.org/10125/44155.

Le, H., Janssen, J., & Wubbels, T. (2018). Collaborative learning practices: teacher and student perceived obstacles to effective student collaboration. Cambridge Journal of Education, 48(1), 103–122. https://doi.org/10.1080/08993400802461396.

Nugrahani, F. (2017). Pendidikan karakter melalui pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia dengan materi membaca novel sastra. Edudikara: Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran, 2(2), 113–125. http://journal.univetbantara.ac.id/index.php/stilistika/article/view/610/484.

Nur, M. (2011). Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif. Pusat Sains dan Matematika Unesa.

Nurgiyantoro, B., & Efendi, A. (2013). Prioritas penentuan nilai pendidikan karakter dalam pembelajaran sastra remaja. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 3(3). https://doi: 10.21831/cp.v3i3.1626.

Nyikos, M., & Hashimoto, R. (1997). Constructivist theory applied to collaborative learning in teacher education: In search of ZPD. The Modern Language Journal, 81(4), 506–517. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1997.tb05518.x.

Paulus, T. M. (2005). Collaborative and cooperative approaches to online group work: The impact of task type. Distance Education, 26(1), 111–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/01587910500081343.

Premo, J., Cavagnetto, A., Davis, W. B., & Brickman, P. (2018). Promoting collaborative classrooms: the impacts of interdependent cooperative learning on undergraduate interactions and achievement. CBE—Life Sciences Education, 17(2), ar32. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.17-08-0176.

Rao, S. P., Collins, H. L., & DiCarlo, S. E. (2002). Collaborative testing enhances student learning. Advances in Physiology Education, 26(1), 37–41. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1152/advan.00032.2001.

Park, S. (2015). The Effects of social cue principles on cognitive load, situational interest, motivation, and achievement in pedagogical agent multimedia learning. Educational Technology & Society, 18 (4), 211–229. https://www.j-ets.net/collection/published-issues/18_4.

Ravenscroft, S. P., Buckless, F. A., & Hassall, T. (1999). Cooperative learning-a literature guide. Accounting Education, 8(2), 163–176. https://doi.org/10.1080/096392899330991.

Redes, A. (2016). Collaborative learning and teaching in practice. Educația Plus, 16(2), 334–345. https://www.uav.ro/jour/index.php/jpe/article/view/750.

Pelaez, N., Anderson, T.R., Gardner, S. M., Yin, Y., Abraham, J. K., Bartlett, E.L., Gormally, C., Hurney, C.A., Long, T.M., Newman, D.L., Sirum, K., & Stevens, M.T. (2018). A Community-building framework for collaborative research coordination across the education and biology research disciplines. CBE – Life Sciences Education, 17(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.17-04-0060.

Resta, P., & Laferrière, T. (2007). Technology in support of collaborative learning. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), 65–83. https://doi.org/doi 10.1007/s10648-007-9042-7.

Rosenbaum, M. (1980). A schedule for assessing self-control behaviors: Peliminary findings. Behavior Therapy, 11(1), 109-121. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(80)80040-2.

Rotter, J. B. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case hosti. American Psychologist, 45(4), 489-493. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.45.4.489.

Rohadi, T. (2019). A Multi-Level collaborative and cooperative writing class in inducing character building: A model of an integration between teaching writing and character education. English Journal Literacy Utama, 3(1), 9–17. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.33197/ejlutama.vol3.iss1.2019.35.

Rusman, D. (2012). Model-model pembelajaran. Raja Grafindo.

Sasmoko, E. (2005). Metode penelitian pengukuran dan analisis data. HITS.

Sawyer, J., & Obeid, R. (2017). Cooperative and collaborative learning: Getting the best of both words. Copyright and Other Legal Notices. https://aws.amazon.com/s3/.

Schnittka, J., & Schnittka, C. (2016). ‘‘Can I drop it this time?’’ Gender and collaborative group dynamics in an engineering design-based afterschool program. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER), 6(2), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.7771/2157-9288.1120.

Setyawan, W., Rusijono, M., & Jannah, M. (2018). T-Mobile learning android model-based to improve students’ listening capability. 1st International Conference on Education Innovation,1(1), 28-39. https://doi.org/10.2991/icei-17.2018.96.

Sharma, G. (2017). Pros and cons of different sampling techniques. International Journal of Applied Research, 3(7), 749–752. http://www.allresearchjournal.com/archives/?year=2017&vol=3&issue=7∂=K&ArticleId=4130.

Simonton, D.K. (2003). Scientific creativity as constrained stochastic behavior, The integration of product, person, and process perspective. Psychological Buletin, 129(4), 475-494. Doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.129.4.475.

Slavin, R. E. (2010). Co-operative learning: what makes group-work work. The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice, 161–178. http://www.curee.co.uk/publication/slavin-co-operative-learning-what-makes-group-work-work.

Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., & Donovan, S. S. (1999). Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 21–51. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543069001021.

Stevens, R. J., & Slavin, R. E. (1995). The cooperative elementary school: Effects on students’ achievement, attitudes, and social relations. American Educational Research Journal, 32(2), 321–351. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312032002321.

Sugiman, Retnowati, E., Ayres, P., & Murdanu. (2019) Learning Goal-Free problems: Collaborative or individually? Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan, 38(3), 590-600, https://doi:10.21831/cp.v38i3.26914.

Suyanto, P. D. (2010). Model pembinaan pendidikan karakter di lingkungan sekolah. Dirjen Dikdasmen Direktorat Pendidikan Dasar dan Menegah Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional.

Tangney, J.P., Baumeister, R.F., & Boone, A.L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality. 72(2):271-324. Doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x.

Uno, H. B. (2007). Model pembelajaran menciptakan proses belajar mengajar yang kreatif dan efektif. Bumi Aksara.

Warsito, R. & Teguh, S. (2018). “Implementasi nlai-nilai luhur ajaran Ki Hajar Dewantara dalam perkuliahan pendidikan Pancasila untuk mengembangkan karakter mahasiswa”, Jurnal PKn Progresif, 13(1), 1-22. http: jurnal.uns.ac.id/pknprogresif/article/view/22448.

Webb, N. M. (1995). Group collaboration in assessment: Multiple objectives, processes, and outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17(2), 239–261. https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737017002239.

Webb, N. M., Troper, J. D., & Fall, R. (1995). Constructive activity and learning in collaborative small groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 406. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.87.3.406.

Yamin, M., & Ansari, B. I. (2008). Taktik mengembangkan kemampuan individual siswa. Gaung Persada Pers.

York, T.T., Gibson, C.G., & Rankin, S. (2015). Defining and measuring academic success: Practical assessment, research, and evaluation, 20(5), 1-20. http://doi.org/10.7275/hz5x-tx03.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v39i2.31272

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




 

Social Media:

     


 

 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://journal.uny.ac.id/index.php/cp/index.

Translator
 
 web
analytics
View Our Stats

Flag Counter