MODEL PENDIDIKAN MULTIKULTURAL RAMAH DI SEKOLAH ETHNO-RELIGIO SEGREGATION (E-RS) KOTA PONTIANAK

Iwan Supardi, Sumarno Sumarno

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memetakan pola dan mengukur intensitas hubungan antar-kelompok siswa etnis Melayu, Dayak, Tionghoa, dan Madura di empat sekolah swasta berbasis etno-religi (ethno-religio segregation/E-RS) di Kota Pontianak: SMA Sultan Syarif Abdurrahman (Melayu-Islam), SMA Yayasan Pendidikan Kristen (YPK)[Dayak-Nasrani], SMA Kristen Immanuel (Tionghoa-Nasrani, Konghucu, Budha), dan Madrasah Aliyah Swasta (MAS) Al-Anwar (Madura-Islam), berdasarkan sikap dan perilaku berprasangka (prejudice) dan stereotip terhadap etnis dan agama. Metode campuran kualitatif-kuantitatif digunakan pada tahap penelitian. Pada tahap pengembangan rumusan model pendidikan multikultural diuji melalui diskusi kelompok terbatas (Focus Group Discussion/FGD). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan  bahwa sekolah E-RS menampilkan pola-pola hubungan antarkelompok etnis-agama yang khas, seperti ethno-sentrisme, cinta-benci (approach-avoidance) dan benci-cinta (avoidance-approach), saling membenci (avoidance-avoidance) atau berseteru (conflicting pair), dan saling menyukai/ men-dukung (approach-approach) atau sebagai pasangan bulan madu (honeymoon). Kelompok etnis Madura cenderung dijadikan sebagai kelompok target konflik, sementara Tionghoa sebagai kelompok etnis sanjungan. Model pendidikan multikultural ramah dianggap sesuai diterapkan dalam program pendidikan di sekolah E-RS untuk membangun citra positif pada masing-masing kelompok agar prasangka (prejudice) dan bias anggapan (stereotip) dapat dikendorkan.

Kata kunci: prasangka (prejudice) dan stereotip, ethno-religio segregation (E-RS), model pendidikan multikultural ramah

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MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION RAMAH MODEL FOR ETHNO-RELIGIO SEGREGATED SCHOOLS (E-RS) KOTA PONTIANAK

Abstract This research is intended to formulate patterns and measure the strength of the interethnical-religious relation among students from four different ethnic groups of Malay, Dayak, Chinese, and Madurese at the ethno-religio segregated schools (E-RS) in Pontianak: Sultan Syarif Abdurrahman Senior High School (Malay-Islam),  Christian Education Foundation Senior High School/ YPK (Dayak-Christian], Immanuel Christian Senior High School (Chinese-Christian, Konghucu/Confucius, Buddha), dan Private Islamic Senior High School/MAS Al-Anwar (Madurese-Islam), based on their prejudice and stereotype attitudes toward ethnic and religion. The research applied qulititative-quantitative mixed method, and for developing the model, focus group discussion (FGD) was used. The findings show that E-RS have unique and critical interethnic-religious relation patterns, i.e. ethno-centrism, approach-avoidance, avoidance-approach, avoidance-avoidance (conflicting pair), and approach-approach (honeymoon). Madurese is treated as potential conflicting targeted group; Chinese as popular referring group among case groups. A model of Ramah (friendly attitudes and behaviours) in multicultural education is promoted to develop positive images among the groups to reduce potential prejudice and stereotypes.

Keywords: prejudice and stereotype, ethno-religio segregated schools (E-RS), multicultural education ramah model


Keywords


prasangka (prejudice) dan stereotip; ethno-religio segregation (E-RS); model pendidikan multikultural ramah

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/pep.v18i2.2861

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