Family nurture in the social skills development of children with intellectual disabilities through daily activities

Mumpuniarti Mumpuniarti, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Gena Diniarti, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Wening Prabawati, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Suparno Suparno, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia


In the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, social restriction inhibits social skills. This research examines family nurturing in facilitating social skills development, parents' inclination in facilitating nurturing, and different intensities in nurturing the social skills development of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). This research subject included eight parents of 5–7-year-old children with mild ID who were pursuing preschool special education. It employed a qualitative approach. Data collection was performed through interviews guided with a close-ended questionnaire on 11 social skills categories. Reasons for the development of each social skills category were to be revealed through an open-ended questionnaire. Data analysis involved the categorization of social skills in relation to daily living activities in the family. It was found that the social skills that might be developed through daily living activities in the family were the social skills performed through activities with family. Parents' ability to stimulate the social skills of children with ID tended to be concrete in nature and dependent on other people as models and the intensity on the presence of others to support as media.


activities in family; social skills of children with intellectual disabilities

Full Text:



Adela, M., Mihaela, S., Elena-Adriana, T., & Monica, F. (2011). Evaluation of a program for developing socio-emotional competencies in pre-school children. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 2161–2164.

Allen, D. (2008). The relationship between challenging behaviour and mental ill-health in people with intellectual disabilities: A review of current theories and evidence. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 12(4), 267–294.

Berns, R. (2010). Child, family, school, community: Socialization and support. Cengage Learning.

Blacher, J., Baker, B. L., & Eisenhower, A. S. (2009). Student-teacher relationship stability across early school years for children with intellectual disability or typical development. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114(5), 322–339.

Boehm, T. L., & Carter, E. W. (2016). A systematic review of informal relationships among parents of individuals with intellectual disability or autism. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 41(3), 173–190.

Callahan, K., Hughes, H. L., Mehta, S., Toussaint, K. A., Nichols, S. M., Ma, P. S., Kutlu, M., & Wang, H.-T. (2017). Social validity of evidence-based practices and emerging interventions in autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 188–197.

Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials. Sage.

Dewi, Y. T., Apsari, N. C., Wibhawa, B., & Humaedi, S. (2018). Activity daily living (ADL) of young people with intellectual disabilities. Proceedings of the International Conference on Diversity and Disability Inclusion in Muslim Societies (ICDDIMS 2017), 153(Icddims 2017), 40–43.

Diana, R. R., Chirzin, M., Bashori, K., Suud, F. M., & Khairunnisa, N. Z. (2021). Parental engagement on children character education: The influences of positive parenting and agreeableness mediated by religiosity. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 40(2), 428–444.

Domitrovich, C. E., Durlak, J. A., Staley, K. C., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Social-Emotional competence: An essential factor for promoting positive adjustment and reducing risk in school children. Child Development, 88(2), 408–416.

Ferreira, M., Aguiar, C., Correia, N., Fialho, M., & Pimentel, J. S. (2019). Friendships and social acceptance of portuguese children with disabilities: The role of classroom quality, individual skills, and dosage. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 39(3), 183–195.

Garrote, A., Sermier Dessemontet, R., & Moser Opitz, E. (2017). Facilitating the social participation of pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools: A review of school-based interventions. Educational Research Review, 20, 12–23.

Hallam, S. (2010). The power of music: Its impact on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people. International Journal of Music Education, 28(3), 269–289.

Halle, T. G., & Darling-Churchill, K. E. (2016). Review of measures of social and emotional development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 45, 8–18.

Hardman, M. L., Egan, M. W., Drew, C. J., Taylor, T., Brigham, D., Gibb, G. S., & Young, B. (2016). Human exceptionality: School, community, and family. Cengage Learning.

Hurlock, E. B. (2001). Child development (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

King, E., Okodogbe, T., Burke, E., McCarron, M., McCallion, P., & O'Donovan, M. A. (2017). Activities of daily living and transition to community living for adults with intellectual disabilities. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 24(5), 357–365.

Lussier-Desrochers, D., Lachapelle, Y., & Caouette, M. (2014). Challenges in the completion of daily living activities in residential settings. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 16.

Mamta Rani, & Hemant Singh Keshwal. (2016). Effect of Co-curricular Activities on Development of Social Skills of Children with Intellectual Disability. Journal of Disability Management and Rehabilitation, 2(1), 18–21.

McLeod, B. D., Sutherland, K. S., Martinez, R. G., Conroy, M. A., Snyder, P. A., & Southam-Gerow, M. A. (2017). Identifying Common Practice Elements to Improve Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Outcomes of Young Children in Early Childhood Classrooms. Prevention Science, 18(2), 204–213.

Mihaela, T. I. (2015). Promoting The Emotional Wellbeing of Preschoolers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209(July), 509–513.

Mujahidah, N. E., Astuti, B., & Nhung, L. N. A. (2019). Decreasing academic stress through problem-focused coping strategy for junior high school students. Psychology, Evaluation, and Technology in Educational Research, 2(1), 1–9.

Muthmainah, Purwanta, E., Suwarjo, & Mariani. (2021). Coping strategies among kindergarteners in the gender perspective. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 40(2), 316–328.

Nastiti, R. B., & Purwanta, E. (2019). Introducing career to kindergarten students. Psychology, Evaluation, and Technology in Educational Research, 2(1), 10.

Nature, S. (2020). Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Early Childhood Care and Education. In Early Childhood Education Journal (Vol. 48, Issue 5, pp. 533–536).

Piek, J. P., Dawson, L., Smith, L. M., & Gasson, N. (2008). The role of early fine and gross motor development on later motor and cognitive ability. Human Movement Science, 27(5), 668–681.

Rock, L., & Crow, S. (2017). Not just "soft skills": How young children' s learning & health benefit from strong social-emotional development. Opportunity Institute.

Shepley, S. B., Spriggs, A. D., Samudre, M., & Elliot, M. (2018). Increasing daily living independence using video activity schedules in middle school students with intellectual disability. Journal of Special Education Technology, 33(2), 71–82.

Smith, L. E., Maenner, M. J., & Seltzer, M. M. (2012). Developmental trajectories in adolescents and adults with autism: The case of daily living skills. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(6), 622–631.

Spriggs, A. D., Mims, P. J., van Dijk, W., & Knight, V. F. (2017). Examination of the evidence base for using visual activity schedules with students with intellectual disability. The Journal of Special Education, 51(1), 14–26.

Sterkenburg, P., Schuengel, C., & Janssen, C. (2008). Developing a therapeutic relationship with a blind client with a severe intellectual disability and persistent challenging behaviour. Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(17), 1318–1327.

Tarasova, K. S. (2016). Development of socio-emotional competence in primary school children. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 233(May), 128–132.

Tassé, M. J., Schalock, R. L., Balboni, G., Bersani, H., Borthwick-Duffy, S. A., Spreat, S., Thissen, D., Widaman, K. F., & Zhang, D. (2012). The construct of adaptive behavior: Its conceptualization, measurement, and use in the field of intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(4), 291–303.

Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school-based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta-analysis of follow-up effects. Child Development, 88(4), 1156–1171.

Tudor, M. E., & Lerner, M. D. (2015). Intervention and support for siblings of youth with developmental disabilities: A systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 18(1), 1–23.

Vuijk, P. J., Hartman, E., Scherder, E., & Visscher, C. (2010). Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(11), 955–965.

Yoshikawa, H., Wuermli, A. J., Britto, P. R., Dreyer, B., Leckman, J. F., Lye, S. J., Ponguta, L. A., Richter, L. M., & Stein, A. (2020). Effects of the global coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic on early childhood development: Short- and long-term risks and mitigating program and policy actions. The Journal of Pediatrics, 223(September), 188–193.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter