How to foster students' creativity? The effects of teacher subjective well-being mediation on the intellectual humility

Farida Kurniawati, Airin Yustikarini Saleh, Shahnaz Safitri


Creativity is widely recognized as one of the essential skills in the 21st century. However, Indonesian students are not considered to possess this characteristic as they belong in rank 115 out of 139 countries on Global Creativity Index in 2015. This leads to the question of whether these students are fostered to think creatively, especially since Indonesian teachers are regarded to hold higher demands and workloads that might limit the attempt for encouraging creativity. This study explores this phenomenon by observing the factors enabling creativity fostering teacher behavior (CFTB). The intellectual humility possessed by the teachers is hypothesized to be predictive for the CFTB through the mediation of teacher subjective well-being. Three instruments were applied in this study: Creativity Fostering Teacher Behavior Index by Soh (2000), Intellectual Humility Scale by Porter & Schumann (2018), and Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire by Renshaw, Long & Cook (2015). Data of 534 teachers from 8 provinces in Indonesia (29.2% males, 70.8 females; M-age = 39.18, SD = 10.25) showed that intellectual humility predicted the CFTB while the teacher subjective well-being served as a partial mediator.


creativity fostering teacher behavior; intellectual humility; teacher wellbeing

Full Text:



Asmara, C., G. (2020). Nadiem Makarim dan gaji guru honorer yang cuma 100 ribu per bulan. CNBC Indonesia.

Baron, R.M., & Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statictical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6): 1173-1182. Doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.

Hayes, A. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Guilford Press.

Hinds, E., Jones, L. B., Gau, J. E., Forrester, K. K., & Biglan, A. (2015). Teacher distress and the role of experiential avoidance. Psychology in the Schools, 52(3): 284–297.

Kumar, R. (2019). Research methodology: A step-by-step guide for beginners (5th ed.). London: SAGE Publication.

Krumrei-Mancuso, E. J. (2017). Intellectual humility and prosocial values: Direct and mediated effects. Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(1), 13–28.

Krumrei-Mancuso, E. J., & Rouse, S. V. (2016). The development and validation of the comprehensive intellectual humility scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(2), 209–221.

Leary, M. R., Diebels, K. J., Davisson, E. K., Jongman-Sereno, K. P., Isherwood, J. C., Raimi, K. T., Deffler, S. A., Hoyle, R. H. (2017).

Cognitive and interpersonal features of intellectual humility. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(6), 793–813.

Lee, I. R., & Kemple, K. (2014). Preservice teachers’ personality traits and engagement in creative activities as predictors of their support for children’s creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 26(1), 82–94.

McInerney, D., Korpershoek, H., Wang, H., & Morin, A. J. S. (2018). Teachers’ occupational attributes and their psychological wellbeing, job satisfaction, occupational self-concept and quitting intentions. Teaching and Teacher Education, 71, 145–158.

Myers, R. E., & Torrance, E. P. (1961). Can teachers encourage creative thinking? Educational Leadership, 19(3), 156-159.

O’Connor, K. E. (2008). “You choose to care”: Teachers, emotions and professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 117–126.

Porter, T & Schumann, K. (2018) Intellectual humility and openness to the opposing view. Self and Identity, 17(2), 139-162, DOI: 10.1080/15298868.2017.1361861

Porter, T., Schumann, K., Selmeczy, D., & Trzesniewski, K. (2020). Intellectual humility predicts mastery behaviors when learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 80(2020), 1-11.

Renshaw, T. L., Long, A. C. J., & Cook, C. R. (2015). Assessing teachers’ positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire. School Psychology Quarterly, 30(2), 289–306.

Rowatt, W. C., Powers, C., Targhetta, V., Comer, J., Kennedy, S., & Labouff, J. (2006). Development and initial validation of an implicit measure of humility relative to arrogance. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(4), 198–211.

Sandri, O. J. (2013). Exploring the role and value of creativity in education for

sustainability. Environmental Education Research, 19(6), 765-778

Simon, L., & Vanisree, D. (2020). Learn to manage stress: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 2(10), 159-160.

Soffel, J. (2016, 10 March). What are the 21st-century skills every student needs?. World Economic Forum.

Soh, K. (2000). Indexing Creativity Fostering Teacher Behavior: A Preliminary Validation Study. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 34(2), 118–134.

Soh, K. (2017). Fostering student creativity through teacher behaviors. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 58–66.

Turner, J. (2017). Psychology for the classroom. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter