Peer observation, self-assessment, and circuit learning: improving critical thinking and physical fitness in physical education

Wahyu Indra Bayu, FKIP Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia
Nurhasan Nurhasan, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
Suroto Suroto, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia
Soleh Solahuddin, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indonesia


Learning, which focuses on higher-level thinking skills, can be applied in the physical education curriculum through games and sports, movement education, and outdoor education. This study aims to produce a learning model that effectively improves the physical fitness and critical thinking skills of students. Purposive sampling was used in selecting research sample members in which 308 (M: 153 and F: 155) fifth-grade students participated in this study. Two groups were selected as research subjects divided into small groups for the first stage test (N: 123; M: 56; F: 67; Average age: 10.82) and large groups for the second stage test (N: 185; M: 97; F: 88; Average age: 10.70). Five indicators of critical thinking skills were measured through a critical thinking skills instrument. Meanwhile, the indicators of physical fitness tests include BMI, Sit and Reach, Sit-Up, Trunk Lift, and PACER 20-M. The results showed that physical education, oriented towards peer observation carried out during the learning process, self-assessment carried out by students, and packed in the circuit learning method is proven to improve critical thinking skills and physical fitness.


physical education; critical thinking; physical fitness; peer observation; self-assessment; circuit learning

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