“My lecturer’s expressionless face kills me!” An evaluation of learning process of German language class in Indonesia

Primardiana Hermilia Wijayati, Rofi'ah Rofi'ah, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Ayub


This qualitative study aimed at evaluating the circumstances in plenary class that provoke learners’ speaking anxiety. To meet the objectives, this study investigated students of German as a Foreign Language (GFL) course who were experiencing speaking anxiety symptoms in the plenary class. The research was a narrative qualitative study, and the data were collected through observation and interview. The result of this study reveals that learners’ speaking anxiety occurred in particular circumstances of the plenary class, such as unfamiliar topic, still class, students’ unpreparedness for spontaneous speaking, expressionless face of the lecturer, and students’ fear of native speaker lecturers.


speaking anxiety; German as a foreign language (GFL); foreign language anxiety (FLA)

Full Text:



Ansari, M. S. (2015). Speaking anxiety in ESL/EFL classrooms: A holistic approach and practical study. International Journal of Educational Investigations, 2(4), 38–46.

Arnaiz, P., & Guillén, F. (2012). Foreign language anxiety in a Spanish university setting: Interpersonal differences. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 17(1), 5–26.

Awan, R.-N., Azher, M., Anwar, M. N., & Naz, A. (2010). An investigation of foreign language classroom anxiety and its relationship with students’ achievement. Journal of College Teaching & Learning, 7(11), 33–40.

Barahmeh, M. (2013). Measuring speaking anxiety among speech communication course students at the Arab American University of Jenin (AAUJ). European Social Sciences Research Journal, 1(3), 229–248.

Bashir, M., Azeem, M., Ashiq, & Dogar, H. (2011). Factor effecting students’ English speaking skills. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 2(1), 34–50.

Basic, L. (2011). Speaking anxiety: An obstacle to second language learning? Gävle: University of Gävle.

Cansrina, G. (2015). Ursachen von sprechangst im DaF-Unterricht - Ergebnisse einer untersuchung von Indonesischen studentInnen an der Universitas Padjadjaran. Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa, Sastra, Dan Budaya Jerman, 2, 168–186.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Department of German Letters. (2016). Katalog jurusan Sastra Jerman. Malang: Fakultas Sastra Universitas Negeri Malang.

Dulay, H. C., Burt, M. K., & Krashen, S. (1982). Language two. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

El-Sakka, S. M. F. (2016). Self-regulated strategy instruction for developing speaking proficiency and reducing speaking anxiety of Egyptian university students. English Language Teaching, 9(12), 22–33. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v9n12p22

Fischer, S., & Modena. (2005). Sprechmotivation und sprechangst im DaF-Unterricht. German as A Foreign Language GFL, 3, 31–45.

Gemeinsamer Europäischer Referenzrahmen (GER). (2004). Gemeinsamer europäischer referenzrahmen für sprachen: Kurzinformationen. Langenscheidt: Landesverlag, Linz.

Glaboniat, M., Müller, M., Rusch, P., Schmitz, H., & Wertenschlag, L. (2005). Profile Deutsch. Langenscheidt: Klett.

Gnjidić, V. (2016). L2 English and L3 German vocabulary learning strategies. Zagreb.

Horwitz, E. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 112–126. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190501000071

Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1986.tb05256.x

Inozemtseva, N. (2017). Sprechangst internationaler studierender in der fremdsprache Deutsch. Essen: Universität Duisburg-Essen Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften Institut für Deutsch als Zweit- und Fremdsprache.

Kiper, H., Meyer, H., & Topsch, W. (2002). Einführung in die Schulpädagogik. Oldenburg: Cornelsen.

Lightbown, P. M., & Spada, N. (2006). How languages are learned (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University.

Marwan, A. (2007). Investigating students’ foreign language anxiety. Malaysian Journal of ELT Research, 3(1), 37–55.

McLaren, N., Madrid, D., & Bueno, A. (2006). TEFL in secondary education. Granada: Universidad de Granada.

Modern Language Division. (2001). Common European framework of reference for language: Learning, teaching, assessment. Strasbourg: Cambridge University Press.

Muhaisen, M. S., & Al-Haq, F. A.-A. (2012). An investigation of the relationship between anxiety and foreign language learning among 2nd secondary students in Second Amman Directorate of Education. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2(6), 226–240.

Nazir, M., Bashir, S., & Raja, Z. B. (2014). A study of second language speaking-anxiety among ESL intermediate Pakistani learners. International Journal of English and Education, 3(3), 216–229.

Nuhn, H.-E. (2000). Die sozialformen des unterrichts. Pädagogik (Weinheim), 52(2), 10–13.

Saville-Troike, M. (2006). Introducing second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sevinç, Y., & Backus, A. (2017). Anxiety, language use and linguistic competence in an immigrant context: A vicious circle? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2017.1306021

Shabani, D. B., Carr, J. E., Pabico, R. S., Sala, A. P., Lam, W. Y., & Oberg, T. L. (2013). The effects of functional analysis test sessions on subsequent rates of problem behavior in the natural environment. Behavioral Interventions, 28(1), 40–47. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.1352

Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant observation (1st ed.). New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Sugiyono. (2012). Metode penelitian pendidikan: Penelitian kuantitatif, kualitatif, dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Tseng, S.-F. (2012). The factors cause language anxiety for ESL/EFL learners in learning speaking. WHAMPOA - An Interdisciplinary Journal, 63, 75–90.

Von Wörde, R. (2003). Students’ perspectives on foreign language anxiety. Inquiry, 8(1), 1–15.

Wijayati, H. W. (1995). Analisis data penelitian etnografi. Forum Penelitian Kependidikan, 7(1), 32–47.

Wilson, J. T. S. (2006). Anxiety in learning English as a foreign language: Its association with student variables, with overall proficiency, and with performance on an oral test. (Doctoral Thesis). Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

Zhiping, D., & Paramasivam, S. (2013). Anxiety of speaking English in class among international students in a Malaysian university. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(11), 1–16.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/reid.v4i2.22466


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Find REID (Research and Evaluation in Education) on:


ISSN 2460-6995 (Online)

View REiD Visitor Statistics