Developing an instrument for measuring the spiritual attitude of high school students

Safa'at Ariful Hudha, Graduate School of Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Djemari Mardapi, Graduate School of Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta


Attitudinal competence is one the most fundamental concepts in social psychology. It is related to personal identity, moral, and ethics that gains popularity and becomes important in educational development. This research aims to develop an instrument to measure the spiritual attitude of high school students. The study was a research and development study consisting of four stages: (a) determining conceptual definition, (b) determining operational definition, (c) drawing indicators, and (d) constructing instrument. The quantitative data analysis was used to test the construct validity through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the coefficient of construct reliability was used to estimate the instrument reliability. The results of the study show that: (1) the instrument to measure Moslems’ spiritual attitude is an inventory model of summated rating scale containing 35 items; (2) the construct validity was proven by the value of the standardized loading factor and considered as significant. The instrument reliability regarded as the construct reliability coefficient is 0.890 and the average variance extracted is 0.542; (3) the construct of the instrument produces a fit statistical evidence indicated by the Goodness of Fit Index = 0.91 (≥0.90), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.032 (≤0.08). The results indicate that the construct of the measurement is suitable with the data. In addition, this research has confirmed that the spiritual attitude of high school students is constructed by seven aspects, namely resignation (tawakal), sincerity (ikhlas), thankfulness (syukur), patience (shabr), fear (khauf), hopefulness (raja’), and righteousness (takwa).


spiritual attitude, validity, reliability

Full Text:



Azarsa, T., Davoodi, A., Markani, A. K., Gahramanian, A., & Vargaeei, A. (2015). Spiritual wellbeing, attitude toward spiritual care and its relationship with spiritual care competence among critical care nurses. Journal of Caring Sciences, 4(4), 309–320.

Bachman, L. F., Davidson, F., Ryan, K., & Choi, I. C. (1995). An investigation into the comparability of two tests of English as a foreign language: The Cambridge TOEFL comparability study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bidjari, A. F. (2011). Attitude and social representation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1593–1597.

Brown, C. G. (2007). Secularization, the growth of militancy and the spiritual revolution: Religious change and gender power in Britain, 1901-2001. Historical Research, 80, 393–418.

Bryant, A. N., Choi, J. Y., & Yasuno, M. (2003). Understanding the religious and spiritual dimensions of students’ lives in the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 44(6), 723–745.

Cook, C. C. (2004). Addiction and spirituality. Addiction, 99(5), 539–551.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Fisher, J. (2013). Assessing spiritual well-being: Relating with God explains greatest variance in spiritual well-being among Australian youth. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 18(4), 306–317.

Fisher, J. (2016). Selecting the best version of SHALOM to assess spiritual well-being. Religions, 7(5), 45.

Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Geranmayepour, S., & Chen, Z. (2014). Measuring Muslim spirituality: Relationships of Muslim experiential religiousness with religious and psychological adjustment in Iran. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 8(1).

Good, M., & Willoughby, T. (2006). The role of spirituality versus religiosity in adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(1), 39–53.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hill, P. C., Pargament, K. I., Hood, R. W., McCullough, J. M. E., Swyers, J. P., Larson, D. B., & Zinnbauer, B. J. (2000). Conceptualizing religion and spirituality: Points of commonality, points of departure. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 30(1), 51–77.

Huber, S., & Huber, O. W. (2012). The centrality of religiosity scale (CRS). Religions, 3(3), 710–724.

Hungelmann, J., Kenkel-Rossi, E., Klassen, L., & Stollenwerk, R. (1996). Focus on spiritual well-being: Harmonious interconnectedness of mind-body-spirit—use of the JAREL spiritual well-being scale: Assessment of spiritual well-being is essential to the health of individuals. Geriatric Nursing, 17(6), 262–266.

Igbaria, M., Zinatelli, N., Cragg, P., & Cavaye, A. L. M. (1997). Personal computing acceptance factors in small firms: A structural equation model. MIS Quarterly, 21(3), 279–305.

Koenig, H. G. (2009). Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(5), 283–291.

Kusaeri, & Suprananto. (2012). Pengukuran dan penelitian pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.

Mardapi, D. (2017). Pengukuran, penilaian, dan evaluasi pendidikan (2nd ed.). Yogyakarta: Parama Publishing.

Min, S., & Yun, S. (2015). A study on the differences between spiritual wellbeing and sexual attitude considering the type of university. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(S1), 54–58.

Ministry of Religious Affairs of Republic of Indonesia. (2014). Model penilaian pencapaian kompetensi peserta didik madrasah tsanawiyah (MTs). Jakarta: Directorate General of Islamic Education.

Moberg, D. O. (2002). Assessing and measuring spirituality: Confronting dilemmas of universal and particular evaluative criteria. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 47–60.

Nikfarjam, M., Heidari-Soureshjani, S., Khoshdel, A., Asmand, P., & Ganji, F. (2017). Comparison of spiritual well-being and social health among the students attending group and individual religious rites. World Family Medicine Journal, 15(8), 160–165.

Salkind, N. J. (2000). Exploring research. Michigan, MI: Prentice Hall.

Sax, G. (1980). Principles of educational and psychological measurement and evaluation. California, CA: Wadsworth.

Sheridan, M. J., & Hemert, K. A. (1999). The role of religion and spirituality in social work education and practice: A survey of student views and experiences. Journal of Social Work Education, 35(1), 125–141.

Shodiq, S., Zamroni, Z., & Kumaidi, K. (2016). Developing an instrument for measuring the faith of the students of Islamic senior high school. REiD (Research and Evaluation in Education), 2(2), 181–193.

Smither, R., & Khorsandi, A. (2009). The implicit personality theory of Islam. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1(2), 81–96.

Soleimani, M. A., Sharif, S. P., Allen, K. A., Yaghoobzadeh, A., Nia, H. S., & Gorgulu, O. (2017). Psychometric properties of the Persian version of spiritual well-being scale in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Religion and Health, 56(6), 1981–1997.

Suranto, S., Muhyadi, M., & Mardapi, D. (2014). Pengembangan instrumen evaluasi uji kompetensi keahlian (UKK) administrasi perkantoran di SMK. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 18(1), 98–114.

Tanyi, R. A. (2002). Towards clarification of the meaning of spirituality. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(5), 500–509.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Find REID (Research and Evaluation in Education) on:


ISSN 2460-6995 (Online)

View REiD Visitor Statistics