Improving student’s self-efficacy through inquiry learning model and modeling in physical education

Hikmad Hakim, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Hasmyati Hasmyati, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Muhammad Zulfikar, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Nur Indah Atifah Anwar, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Hezron Alhim Dos Santos, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Alimin Hamzah, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia


The study aims to reveal the effect of inquiry learning model with modeling application to improve students' self-efficacy. Single-mastery and multiple-coping are used in the modeling. The study used nonequivalent pre-test and post-test control group design. The first experimental group received the inquiry learning model treatment with single-mastery modeling. The second group received received the inquiry learning model treatment with multiple-coping modeling. The direct learning model applied to the control group. Eighty seven students from three classes were taken as research sample using cluster random sampling technique. The treatment lasted for six meetings which were divided into one meeting every week. The instrument used is the physical education self-efficacy scale which was developed in this study based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Paired sample t-test and ANCOVA were used to analyze the data. In the two experimental groups, there was significant increase in students' self-efficacy through the application of the inquiry learning model with single-mastery modeling and the inquiry learning model with multiple-coping modeling. Inquiry learning model with multiple-coping modeling is more effective in increasing students' self-efficacy than inquiry learning model with single-mastery modeling and direct learning model.


self-efficacy; inquiry learning model; modeling

Full Text:



Adisusilo, S. (2012). Pembelajaran Nilai Karakter. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Aldhahi, M. I., Alqahtani, A. S., Baattaiah, B. A., & Al-Mohammed, H. I. (2022). Exploring the relationship between students’ learning satisfaction and self-efficacy during the emergency transition to remote learning amid the coronavirus pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Education and Information Technologies, 27(1).

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. In New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986 (Issue 1).

Bandura, A. (1995). Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. In Self-Efficacy in Changing Societies. Cambridge University Press.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman.

Berliner, D. C., & Calfee, R. C. (2013). Handbook of educational psychology. In Handbook of Educational Psychology.

Chase, M. A. (2001). Children’s self-efficacy, motivational intentions, and attributions in physical education and sport. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(1).

Chen, S., Chen, A., & Zhu, X. (2012). Are K–12 learners motivated in physical education? A meta-analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 83(1).

Chung, N., & Ro, G. (2004). The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on Children’s Creativity and Self-efficacy in the Teaching of the Practical Arts Subject. The Journal of Technology Studies, 30(2).

Flammer, A. (2015). Self-Efficacy. In International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences: Second Edition.

Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2015). Applying Educational Research: How to Read, Do, and Use Research to Solve Problems of Practice. In Pearson Education Limited (7th ed.). Pearson Education.

Gao, Z., Lee, A. M., & Harrison, L. (2008). Understanding students’ motivation in sport and physical education: From the expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory perspectives. Quest, 60(2).

Gao, Z., Lee, A. M., Kosma, M., & Solmon, M. A. (2010). Understanding students’ motivation in middle school physical education: Examining the mediating role of self-efficacy on physical activity. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 41(3).

Han, Y., Syed Ali, S. K. bin, & Ji, L. (2022). Use of Observational Learning to Promote Motor Skill Learning in Physical Education: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(16).

Jackson, B., Whipp, P. R., Chua, K. L. P., Pengelley, R., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2012). Assessment of tripartite efficacy beliefs within school-based physical education: Instrument development and reliability and validity evidence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(2).

Juliantine, T., Nugraha, R., Yudiana, Y., & Zaeri Sya’rani, A. (2022). Development of Students’ Creativity through Learning Models in Physical Education during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 10(1), 0–0.

Kamal, N. A., & Suyanta. (2021). The effect of inquiry-based learning models on students’ critical thinking ability and self-efficacy in reaction rate material. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1806(1).

Luo, Y. J. (2019). The influence of problem-based learning on learning effectiveness in students’ varying learning abilities within physical education. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 56(1).

Lyngstad, I., Bjerke, Ø., Bang, K. M., & Lagestad, P. (2022). Norwegian upper secondary students’ experiences of their teachers’ assessment of and for learning in physical education: examining how assessment is interpreted by students of different physical abilities. Sport, Education and Society, 27(3).

Lynott, F. J., & Bittner, G. L. (2019). Moving Toward Developing Inquiry Skills: Inquiry-Based Learning in Physical Education. Strategies, 32(2).

Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional Models in Physical Education. In Instructional Models in Physical Education.

Millar, R. (1993). What is ’ scientific method’ and can it be taught? In Teaching Science (Issue February).

Mödinger, M., Woll, A., & Wagner, I. (2022). Video-based visual feedback to enhance motor learning in physical education—a systematic review. In German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research (Vol. 52, Issue 3).

Mulyasa. (2013). Pengembangan dan Implementasi kurikulum 2013. In Bandung: Remaja Rosadakarya.

Navarro-Mateu, D., Alonso-Larza, L., Gómez-Domínguez, M. T., Prado-Gascó, V., & Valero-Moreno, S. (2020). I’m Not Good for Anything and That’s Why I’m Stressed: Analysis of the Effect of Self-Efficacy and Emotional Intelligence on Student Stress Using SEM and QCA. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.

Østergaard, L. D. (2016). Inquiry-based Learning Approach in Physical Education: Stimulating and Engaging Students in Physical and Cognitive Learning. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(2).

Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Siiman, L. A., de Jong, T., van Riesen, S. A. N., Kamp, E. T., Manoli, C. C., Zacharia, Z. C., & Tsourlidaki, E. (2015). Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle. In Educational Research Review (Vol. 14).

Peers, C., Issartel, J., Behan, S., O’Connor, N., & Belton, S. (2020). Movement competence: Association with physical self-efficacy and physical activity. Human Movement Science, 70.

Raedts, M., Rijlaarsdam, G., van Waes, L., & Daems, F. (2007). Observational learning through video-based models: Impact on students’ accuracy of self-efficacy beliefs, task knowledge and writing performances. In Studies in Writing (Vol. 19).

Rafiola, R. H., Setyosari, P., Radjah, C. L., & Ramli, M. (2020). The effect of learning motivation, self-efficacy, and blended learning on students’ achievement in the industrial revolution 4.0. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(8).

Raven, H., & Pels, F. (2021). Why feeling competent matters. German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, 51(3).

Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning theories: An educational perspective. In Reading (Vol. 5).

Schunk, D. H., Hanson, A. R., & Cox, P. D. (1987). Peer-Model Attributes and Children’s Achievement Behaviors. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(1).

Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2010). Self-efficacy Beliefs. In International Encyclopedia of Education.

Sökmen, Y. (2021). The role of self-efficacy in the relationship between the learning environment and student engagement. Educational Studies, 47(1).

Suherman, A. (2009). Revitalisasi Pengajaran dalam Pendidikan Jasmani. In Bintang Wali Artika (Vol. 2, Issue 1).

Sulistiyo, M. A. S., & Wijaya, A. (2020). The effectiveness of inquiry-based learning on computational thinking skills and self-efficacy of high school students. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1581(1).

Tarigan, B. (2021). Scientific approach in physical education: Improving creativity and physical fitness of senior high school students in mountainous areas. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Sciences, 9(4).

Tuan, H. L., Chin, C. C., Tsai, C. C., & Cheng, S. F. (2005). Investigating the effectiveness of inquiry instruction on the motivation of different learning styles students. In International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education (Vol. 3, Issue 4).

Usher, E. L., & Pajares, F. (2008). Sources of Self-Efficacy in school: Critical review of the literature and future directions. In Review of Educational Research (Vol. 78, Issue 4).

Uzunosmanoglu, E., Gursel, F., & Arslan, F. (2012). The Effect of Inquiry-based Learning Model on Health-Related Fitness. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47.

Weiss, M. R., McCullagh, P., Smith, A. L., & Berlant, A. R. (1998). Observational Learning and the Fearful Child: Influence of Peer Models on Swimming Skill Performance and Psychological Responses. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69(4), 380–394.

Wright, J., Macdonald, D., & Burrows, L. (2013). Critical Inquiry and Problem Solving in Physical Education: Working with Students in Schools. In Critical Inquiry and Problem Solving in Physical Education. Routledge.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter