Nandang Rusmana, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia
Anne Hafina, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia
Riesa Rismawati Siddik, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia
Lutfi Nur, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia


Self-esteem contributes to an individual’s mental health and quality of life because it determines who they are, activities they do, as well as their personality. This study aimed to describe the development of students’ self-esteem through group counselling intervention with an assertive training technique. Employing a true experimental method with the pretest–posttest control group design, this study involved 191 students as the samples following Isaac and Michael at an error level of 5% of the total population of 420 students. From the self-esteem questionnaires, it was found that 28 students belonged to the low self-esteem group. Then, interventions were carried out in six sessions outside of class hours, with a duration of 90 minutes for each session. The data were obtained through the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) instrument with a reliability value of .92, and analyzed using the Mann-Whitney two mean discrimination test. The results showed that students who were given group-counselling interventions with assertive training technique were better than those in the control group. Therefore, assertive training technique helps restore students' awareness of their rights to have a happy and esteemed life. Besides, assertive training technique helps renew students' confidence in the functioning of their minds and belief in their abilities in facing life challenges.


assertive training; group counseling; self-esteem; vocational high school student

Full Text:



Akbari, B., Mohamadi, J., & Sadeghi, S. (2012). Effect of assertiveness training methods on self- esteem and general self efficacy female students of islamic azad university anzali branch Iran. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(3), 2265-2269.,%202(3)2265-2269,%202012.pdf.

Al-hadihasan, A., Callaghan, P., & Lymn, J. S. (2017). Qualitative process evaluation of a psycho- educational intervention targeted at people diagnosed with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers in Jordan. BMC Psychiatry, 17(68), 1-17.

Algoe, S. B., & Haidt, J. (2009). Witnessing excellence in action: The ‘other-praising’ emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(2), 105-127.

Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287-293.

Bean, C., & Forneris, T. (2016). Examining the importance of intentionally structuring the youth sport context to facilitate positive youth development. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(4), 410-425.

Bowen, D. J., Neill, J. T., & Crisp, S. J. R. (2016). Wilderness adventure therapy effects on the mental health of youth participants. Evaluation and Program Planning, 58, 49-59.

Branden, N. (1994). The six pillar of self esteem. New York, NY: Bantam Book Publishing History.

Cameron, J. J., & Granger, S. (2019). Does self-esteem have an interpersonal imprint beyond self-reports? A meta- analysis of self-esteem and objective interpersonal indicators. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 23(1), 73-102.

Connelly, D., & Rotella, R. J. (1991). The social psychology of assertive communication: issues in teaching assertiveness skills to athletes. Human Kinetics Journal, 5(1), 73-87.

Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self esteem. San Francisco, CA: Freeman Press.

Corey, G. (2009). Teori dan praktek konseling dan psikoterapi. [The theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy]. Bandung: PT Refika Aditama.

Dehnavi, F., & Ebrahimi, M. I. (2016). Effect of assertiveness skills training on the level of aggression in high school first grade female students in Qorveh city. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, March(Special Issue), 1421-1434.

DiGiuseppe, R., Venezia, R., & Gotterbarn, R. (2019). What is cognitive behavior therapy? In S. G. Little & A. Akin-Little (Eds.). Behavioral interventions in schools: Evidence-based positive strategies (School Psychology Book Series). Michigan: American Psychological Association, pp. 325-350.

Ghahramani, M. H., Besharat, M. A., & Naghipour, B. (2011). An examination of the relationship between perfectionism and self-esteem in a sample of student athletes. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1265-1271.

Harris, M. A., Guo, J., Mcadams, D. P., Garnier-villarreal, M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2017). Parental co-construction of 5 to 13 year-olds’ global self-esteem through reminiscing about past events. Child Development, 88(6), 1810-1822.

Huang, C., Chen, Y., Greene, L., Cheung, S., & Wei, Y. (2019). Resilience and emotional and behavioral problems of adolescents in China: Effects of a short-term and intensive mindfulness and life skills training. Children and Youth Services Review, 100(C), 291-297.

Karagozoglu, S., Kahve, E., Koc, O., & Adamisoglu, D. (2008). Self esteem and assertiveness of final year Turkish university students. Nurse Education Today, 28(5), 641-649.

Kearns, A., Wright, V., Abrams, L., & Hazley, B. (2017). Slum clearance and relocation: a reassessment of social outcomes combining short-term and long-term perspectives. Housing Studies, 34(2), 1-25.

Kia, S., Shabani, H., Ahghar, G., & Modanloo, M. (2016). The effect of assertiveness training on first-grade schoolgirls’ self-esteem in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 4(1), 38-46.

Lynch, R. T., & Gussel, L. (1996). Disclosure and self‐advocacy regarding disability‐related needs: strategies to maximize integration in postsecondary education. Journal of Counseling and Development, 74(4), 352-357.

Mann, M. M., Hosman, C. M. H., Schaalma, H. P., & Vries, N. K. De. (2004). Self-esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 19(4), 357-372.

Marzuki, M., Miftahuddin, M., & Murdiono, M. (2020). Multicultural education in salaf pesantren and prevention of religious radicalism in Indonesia. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 39(1), 12-25.

Masselink, M., Roekel, E., & Oldehinkel, A. . (2018). Self-esteem in early adolescence as predictor of depressive symptoms in late adolescence and early adulthood: The mediating role of motivational and social factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47(5), 932-946.

Moksnes, U. K., & Reidunsdatter, R. J. (2019). Self-esteem and mental health in adolescents–level and stability during a school year. Norsk Epidemiologi, 28(8), 59-67.

Murk, C. J. (2006). Self-esteem research, theory, and practice. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.

Murray, S. L., & Holmes, J. G. (2000). Seeing the self through a partner’s eyes: why self-doubts turn into relationship insecurities. In A. Tesser, R. B. Felson, & J. M. Suls (Eds.). Psychological perspectives on self and identity. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 173-197.

Nesrin, İ., Sukut, Ö., Uta, L., & Batmaz, M. (2016). The effect of nurse education on the self-esteem and assertiveness of nursing students: A four-year longitudinal study. Nurse Education Today, 39, 72-78.

Newman, M. G., LaFreniere, L. L., & Shin, K. E. (2017). Cognitive-behavioral therapies in historical perspective. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Nur, L., Nurani, L. A., Suryana, D., & Ahmad, A. (2020). Rasch model application on character development instrument for elementary school students. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 19(3), 437-459.

Rokhayati, A., Nur, L., Elan, E., & Gandana, G. (2017). Tactical approach to increase motivation for learning students on physical education teaching in primary schools. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 180(1), 1-6.

Obikwelu, C. L. (2015). Effect of need-focused cognitive restructuring intervention programme on the self-esteem and self-efficacy of recidivist inmates in the prisons in Nigeria (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nigeria).

Orth, U., Erol, R. Y., & Luciano, E. C. (2018). Development of self-esteem from age 4 to 94 years: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 144(10), 1045-1080.

Parray, W. M., & Kumar, S. (2017). Impact of assertiveness training on the level of assertiveness, self-esteem, stress, psychological well-being and academic achievement of adolescents. Indian Journal of Health and Well-Being, 8(12), 1476-1480.

Radtke, S. R., Strege, M. V, & Ollendick, T. H. (2020). Exposure therapy for children and adolescents with social anxiety disorder. In T. Peris, E. Storch, & J. McGuire (Eds.). Exposure therapy for children with anxiety and OCD: Clinician’s guide to integrated treatment. USA: Academic Press.

Rees, S., & Graham, R. S. (1991). Assertion training: How to be who you really are? New York, NY: Routledge.

Ronningstam, E. (2017). Intersect between self-esteem and emotion regulation in narcissistic personality disorder-implications for alliance building and treatment. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, 4(3), 1-13.

Seart, A. G. (2003). The effect of an assertiveness training on the assertiveness and self esteem level of 5th grade children (Master Thesis, Middle East Technical University).

Solehuddin, M., & Budiman, N. (2019). Multicultural competence of prospective preschool teachers in predominantly Muslim country. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 38(3), 438-451.

Vatankhah, H., Daryabari, D., Ghadami, V., & Naderifar, N. (2013). The effectiveness of communication skills training on self-concept, self-esteem and assertiveness of female students in guidance school in Rasht. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 885-889.

Widodo, A. S., & Pratitis, N. T. (2013). Harga diri dan interaksi sosial ditinjau dari status sosial ekonomi orang tua. [Self-esteem and social interactions in terms of the socioeconomic status of parents]. Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 2(2), 131-138.

Windaniati, W. (2013). Meningkatkan self-esteem siswa melalui teknik assertive training pada siswa kelas XI TMO 1 SMK Negeri 7 Semarang. [Improving students’ self-esteem through training assertive techniques in class XI TMO 1 student of SMK Negeri 7 Semarang]. Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan, 30(2), 173-180.

Yadav, P. & Iqbal, N. (2009). Impact of life skill training on self-esteem, adjustment and empathy among adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 35(Special Issue), 61-70.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter