Ermawan Susanto, Department PE, Sport Sciece Faculty, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia
Pamuji Sukoco, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia
Suharjana Suharjana, Yogyakarta State University, Indonesia


Accidents in swimming pools which involve drowning are more likely to happen in Indonesia. Cases of accidents in swimming pools might indicate that there may be lack of  responsibility among the swimmers. Therefore, there is a need to improve this condition. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the Aquares model developed from Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) theory, on the students’ responsibility in swimming lessons. This study used an experimental method with one group pretest-posttest design. The study population was students of grade four with a sample of 60 students taken through cluster random sampling. The Tool for Assessing Responsibility-Based Education (TARE) was the instrument used to measure personal and social responsibility. The paired sample t-test analysis showed that there is a significant impact of the Aquares model on the increase of the students’ personal and social responsibility. Aspect of the increased responsibility include: respect, participation, self-direction, caring, and role model. The Aquares model applied in this study provides a strong framework for creating a meaningful and responsible environment for learning.


aquares model; personal and social responsibility; swimming lesson

Full Text:



Alcalá, D., Río, J., Calvo, G., & Pueyo, Á. (2019). Comparing effects of a TPSR training program on prospective PE teacher’s in Spain, Chile and Costa Rica. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 24(3), 220-232.

Anthony, E., Alter C., & Jenson, J. (2009). Development of a risk and resilience-based out-of-school time program for children and youths. Social Work, 54(1), 45-55.

Beale, A. (2016). Making a different TPSR, a new wave of youth development changing lives one stroke at a time. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(5), 31-34.

Beaudoin, S. (2012). Using responsibility-based strategies to empower in-service Physical Education and health teachers to learn and implement TPSR. Agora para la educación física y el deporte, 14(2), 161-177.

Buchanan, A. (2001). Contextual challenges to teaching responsibility in a sports camp. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 20(2), 155-171.

Cabalero, P., Delgado, M., & Escartí, A. (2013). Analysis of TPSR model-based programmes applied in USA & Spain. Revistas Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 8(2), 427-441.

Cryan, M., & Martinek, T. (2017). Youth sport development through soccer: Anevaluation of an after-school program using the TPSR model. The Physical Educator, 74(1), 127-149.

Elias, M. J. (2005). The connection between academic and socialemotional learning. In The Fundamental Connection of Sel/Ei, Academic Performance, and the Process of Learning, pp. 4-14.

Escartí, A. (2012). Applying the teaching personal and social responsibility model (TPSR) in Spanish schools context: Lesson learned. Agora para la educación física y el deporte. 14(2), 178-196.

Escartí, A., Gutiérrez, M., Pascual, C., & Marín, D. (2010). Application of Hellison’s teaching personal and social responsibility model in physical education to improve self-efficacy for adolescents at risk of dropping-out of school. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), 667-676.

Escartí, A., Goig R., & Wright, P. M. (2017). Assesing the implementation fidelity of a school-based teaching personal and social responsibility program in PE. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 37(1), 12-23.

Glassman, T., Castor, T., Karmakar, M., Blavos, A., Dagenhard, P., Domigan, J., & Kucharewski, R. (2018). A social marketing intervention to prevent drowning among inner-city youth. Health Promotion Practice, 19(2), 175-183.

Gordon, B., Thevenard, L., & Hodis, F. (2011). Teaching personal and social responsibility through secondary school physical education: The New Zealand experience. New Zealand Physical Educator, 44(1), 25-37.

Gordon, B., Jacobs, J., & Wright, P. (2016). Social and emotional learning through a teaching personal and social responsibility based after-school program for disengaged middle-school boys. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35(4), 358-369.

Hassandra, M. & Goudas, M. (2010). An evaluation of a physical education program for development of stundents responsibility. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 7(3), 275-297.

Hellison, D. & Walsh, D. (2002). Responsibility-based youth programs evaluation: Investigating the investigations. Quest, 54(4), 292-307.

Irmansyah, J., Sugiyanto, Lumintuarso, R., & Sukoco, P. (2020). Children’s social skill through traditional sport games in primary school. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 39(1), 39-53.

Jacobs, J. M., Castaneda, A., & Castaneda, R. (2016). Sport-based youth and community development: Beyond the ball in Chicago. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(5), 18-22.

Jung, J. & Wright, R. (2012). Application of Hellison’s responsibility model in South Korea: A multiple case study of ‘at-risk’ middle school students in physical education. Agora para la educación física y el deporte, 14(2), 140-160.

Kumar, V., Singh, A., Sandhu, J. S., Gupta, N., & Pandey, R. M. (2017). Comparative study of sports motivation among contact and non-contact sports persons. International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health, 4(4), 128-131.

Lee, O., & Choi, E. (2015). The influence of professional development on teachers’ implementation of the teaching personal and social responsibility model. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34(4), 603-625.

Li, W., Wright, P., Rukavlna, & Pickering, M. (2008). Measuring students perceptions of personal and social responsibility and the relationship to intrinsic motivation in urban physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27(2), 167-178.

Martinek, T. & Hellison, D. (2016). Teaching personal and social responsibility: Past, present and future. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(5), 8-13.

Nurina, T., & Sukoco, P. (2014). Upaya peningkatan karakter siswa dalam permainan bola basket melalui model TPSR. [The efforts to improve characters of senior high school students in basketball game through TPSR model]. Jurnal Keolahragaan, 2(1), 77-87.

Petrass, L. A., & Blitvich, J. D. (2014). Preventing adolescent drowning: Understanding water safety knowledge, attitudes and swimming ability. The effect of a short water safety intervention. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 70(2014), 188-194.

Pozo, P., Grao-Cruces, A., & Pérez-Ordás, R. (2018). Teaching personal and social responsibility model-based programmes in physical education: A systematic review. European Physical Education Review, 24(1), 56-75.

Rahayu, N. I., Suherman, A., & Jabar, B. A. (2018). Hybridising teaching personal social responsibility (TPSR) and problem based learning (PBL) in Physical Education. Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani dan Olahhraga, 3(2), 101-111.

Salamuddin, N., & Harun, M. T. (2010). Facilitating the process of learning social skills through humanistic physical education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9(2010), 223-227.

Schwebel, D. C., Jones, H. N., Holder, E., & Marciani, F. (2011). The influence of simulated drowning audits on lifeguard surveillance and swimmer risk-taking at public swimming pools. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, 5(2), 210-218.

Subagyo, S., Guntur, G., & Alim, A. (2020). Swimming crawl style: The effect of pure progressive method and level of body fat. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 39(1), 183-190.

Sutapa, P. & Suharjana, S. (2019). Improving gross motor skills by gross kinesthetic-and contemporary-based physical acctivity in early childhood. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 38(3), 540-551.

Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting positive youth development through school-based social and emotional learning interventions: A meta-analysis of follow-up effects. Child Development, 88(4), 1156-1171.

Umegaki, A., Otomo, S., Minamishima, E., Ueta, K., Fukada, N., Yoshii, T., & Miyao, N. (2016). Study of the transfer and maintenance of the effects of the TPSR model in junior high school physical education classes. Taiikugaku Kenkyu (Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences), 61(2), 503-516.

Walsh, D. (2008). Helping youth in underserved communities envision possible futures: An extension of the teaching personal and social responsibility model. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(2), 209-221.

Walsh, D., Ozaeta, J., & Wright, P. M. (2010). Transference of responsibility model goals to the school environment: Exploring the impact of a coaching club program. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15(1), 15-28.

Wright, P. M., & Burton, S. (2008). Implementation and outcomes of a responsibility-based physical activity program integrated into an intact high school physical education class. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27(2), 138-154.

Wright, P. M., & Craig, M. W. (2011). Tool for assessing responsibility-based education (TARE): Instrument development, content validity, and inter-rater reliability. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 15(3), 204-219.

Wright, E., Withley, M., & Sabolboro, G. (2012). Conducting a TPSR program for an underserved girls’ summer camp. Agora Para La Educación Física y El Deporte, 14(1), 5-24.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter