Umi Mahmudah, State Islamic University of Pekalongan, Indonesia, Indonesia
Muhamad Chamdani, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia, Indonesia
Tarmidzi Tarmidzi, State Islamic University of Pekalongan, Indonesia, Indonesia
Siti Fatimah, Sebelas Maret University, Indonesia, Indonesia


Scientific literacy is a vital program for current generation of students in the whole world. The purpose of this study is to estimate the impact of students’ social behaviors on scientific literacy by using robust regression. A robust approach is applied to overcome the weaknesses of the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The method is believed to produce better accuracy of estimation. This study applies a survey method conducted by using 200 research subjects which are randomly selected at a university in Indonesia. There are two instruments used, namely questionnaire sheets using a Likert scale and test sheets. There are four categories used in this study to measure the students’ social behaviors, which are cooperation (X1), assertiveness (X2), self-control (X3) and pro-social behaviors toward peers (X4). The analysis results reveal that all of independent variables have positive and significant impact on students’ scientific literacy (Y). Furthermore, the highest impact is collaboration (X1) and the lowest impact is pro-social behavior towards peers (X4), where the robust regression coefficients are .262 and .238, respectively.


robust regression, scientific literacy, social behaviors

Full Text:



Alma, O. G. (2011). Comparison of robust regression methods in linear regression. International Journal Contemporary Mathematical Sciences, 6(9), 409-421.

Belim, C., & Almeida, C. V. (2018). Healthy thanks to communicaton: A model of communication competence to optimize helath literacy - assertiveness, clear languange, and positivy. In V. E. Papalois & M. Theodosopoulou (Eds.). Optimizing health literacy for improved clinical practice. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, pp. 124-152. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-4074-8.ch008.

Borghans, L., Golsteyn, B. H., Heckman, J., & Humphries, J. E. (2011). Identification problems in personality psychology. Personal Individual Differences, 51(3), 315-320. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.03.029.

Bybee, R., McCrae, B., & Barry, R. (2009). PISA 2006: An assessment of scientific literacy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(6), 862-883. doi:10.1002/tea.20333.

Colthorpe, K., Abraha, H. M., Zimbardi K., Ainscough, L., Spiers, J. G., Chen, H. C., & Lavidis, N. A. (2017). Assessing students’ ability to critically evaluate evidence in an inquiry-based undergraduate laboratory course. Advances in Physiology Education, 41(1), 154-162. doi:10.1152/advan.00118.2016.

DeBoer, G. E. (2000). Scientific literacy: Another look at its historical and contemporary meanings and its relationship to science education reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(6), 582-601. doi:10.1002/1098-2736(200008)37:6<582::AID-TEA5>3.0.CO;2-L.

DeVries, J. M., Rathmann, K., & Gebhardt, M. (2018). How does social behavior relate to both grades and achievement scores? Frontier Psychology, 9(857), 1-8. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00857.

Dries, D. R. (2019). Gains in affect and in scientific literacy from peer-led team learning in a literature-based first-semester Biochemistry course. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 33(1). doi:10.1096/fasebj.2019.33.1_supplement.617.9.

Duckworth, A. L., Taxer, J. L., Eskreis-Winkler, L., Galla, B. M., & Gross, J. J. (2019). Self-control and academic achievement. Annual Review of Psychology, 70(1), 373-399. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-103230.

El Mallah, S. (2014). Social behavior and academic performance: Examining relations between forms of pro-social behavior and aggression in predicting academic outcomes. (Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University).

Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S., & Johnson, D. W. (2012). Teaching adolescents to become learners. the role of noncognitive factors in shaping school performance: A critical literature review. Chicago: University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research.

Fox, J. (2002). Bootstrapping robust regression models: Appendix to an R and S-PLUS. companion to applied regression.

Fox, J. & Weisberg, S. (2011). An R companion to applied regression (2nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.

Gaševic, D., Zouaq, A., & Janzen, R. (2013). “Choose your classmates, your GPA is at stake!” The association of cross-class social ties and academic performance. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(10), 1460-1479. doi:10.1177/0002764213479362.

House, J. D., & Telese, J. A. (2017). Confidence in science and achievement outcomes of fourth-grade students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2011 assessment. Project Innovation, 137(4), 389-392.

Lechner, C., Danner, D., & Rammstedt, B. (2017). How is personality related to intelligence and achievement? A replication and extension of Borghans et al. and Salkever. Personality and Individual Differences, 111(June), 86-91. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2017.01.040.

LIorent, V. J., Gomez, A. L., Farrington, D. P., & Zych, I. (2020). Social and emotional competencies and empathy as predictors of literacy competence. Psicothema, 32(1), 47-53. doi:10.7334/psicothema2019.106.

Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students’ time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal Education Psychology, 82(4), 760-768. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.82.4.760.

Maienschein, J. (1998). Scientific literacy. Science, 281(5379), 917. doi:10.1126/science.281.5379.917.

NRC, National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/4962.

OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2003). Scientific literacy.

OECD. (2019). Programme for international student assessment (PISA) results from PISA 2018.

Ramadhanti, D., & Yanda, D. P. (2018). Understanding poetry through the use of cooperative learning model. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 32(3), 436-446. doi:10.21831/cp.v38i3.20675.

Ribeiro, A. (2018). The effects of child literacy and self-control on school readiness based on teacher report. (Master Thesis, University of Rhode Island).

Repolschi, O. (2017). Beliefs and behaviors in learning critical thinking skills. Philosophy, Social and Human Disciplines, II, 43-56.

Supahar, Rosana, D., Ramadani, M., & Dewi, D. K. (2017). Performance assessment instrument of science process skills conform the nature of science. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 36(3), 435-445. doi:10.21831/cp.v36i3.14731.

Suwono, H., Pratiwi, H. E., Susanto, H., & Susilo, H. (2017). Enhancement of students’ biological literacy and critical thinking of biology through socio-biological case-based learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(2), 213-220. doi:10.15294/jpii.v6i2.9622.

Truesdell, L. A. & Abramson, T. (1992). Academic behavior and grades of mainstreamed students with mild disabilities. Exceptional Children, 58(5), 392-398. doi:10.1177/001440299205800503.

Turiman, P., Omar, J., Daud, A. M., & Osman, K. (2012). Fostering the 21st Century skills through scientific literacy and science process skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 59(October), 110-116. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.253.

Zimmerman, D. W. (1998). Invalidation of parametric and nonparametric statistical tests by concurrent violation of two assumptions. Journal of Experimental Education, 67(1), 55-68. doi:10.1080/00220979809598344.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter