Agus Taufiq, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia
Herdi Herdi, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia


Wisdom is one of the fundamental qualities of personality, core competence, and predictors of effective counselor. The wisdom of a pre-service counselor is predicted to develop if the counselor has the opportunity to undergo, ask, reflect, and internalize his/her experiences through supervised counseling practice. The objective of the research is to compare the wisdom resulted by Indonesian pre-service counselors based on the number of supervision during counseling practices. The research used the ex post facto method. The sample of this research consisted of 489 sixth semester pre-service counselors of 11 guidance and counseling department in Indonesia, whereas 307 students only received < 3x supervision, and 182 students with >3x supervision. Data were collected using Indonesian Counselor's Wisdom Scale with Cronbach’s Alpha = .92. The t-test results show that there was a significant difference in the average score of wisdom and each dimension: religious, personal, social, emotional, reflective, and ethic of the pre-service counselors based on the number of supervised counseling practice where those with less supervision had better quality of wisdom. This means that the small number of supervised counseling practice experience but with a quality of supervisory working alliance can develop the wisdom of pre-service counselors.


counseling; counselor; counselor education and supervision; higher education; pre-service counselor; wisdom

Full Text:



Aczel, B. (2019). Low levels of wisdom. In R. J. Sternberg, & J. Glück (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of wisdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 483-499.

Ardelt, M. (2003). Empirical assessment of a three-dimensional wisdom scale. Research on Aging, 23(3), 275-324. doi: 10.1177/0164027503251764.

Ardelt, M. (2011). The measurement of wisdom: A commentary on Taylor, Bates, and Webster's comparison of the SAWS and 3D-WS. Journal of Experimental and Aging Research, 37(2), 241-255. doi: 10.1080/0361073X.2011.554509.

Ardelt, M. (2018). Can wisdom and psychosocial growth be learned in university courses. Journal of Moral Education, 7, 1-14, doi:10.1080/03057240.2018.1471392.

Ardelt, M., Pridgen, S., & Nutter-Pridgen, K. L. (2019). Wisdom as personality type. In R. J. Sternberg, & J. Glück (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of wisdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 144-161.

ACES. (2011). Association for counselor education and supervision. Alexandria, VA: Autor.

Baltes, P. B., Glück, J., & Kunzmann, U. (2005). Wisdom: Its structure and function in regulating successful life span. In C. R. Snyder, & S. J. Lopez (Eds.). Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 327-347.

Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Borders, D. L. (2019). Science of learning: Evidenced-based teaching in the clinical supervision classroom. Counselor Education & Supervision, 58(1), 64-79. doi:10.1002/ceas.12124.

Bordin, E. S. (1983). A working alliance based model of supervision. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 16(3), 252-260. doi:10.1177/0011000083111007.

Brown, S. C. (2004). Learning across the campus: How college facilitates the development of wisdom. Journal of College Student Development, 45(2), 134-148. doi:10.1353/csd.2004.0020.

Brown, S. C., & Greene, J. A. (2006). The wisdom development scale: Translating the conceptual to the concrete. Journal of College Student Development, 47(1), 1-19. doi:2006-01921-001.

Brugman, G. M. (2006). Wisdom and aging. In J. E. Birren, & K. W. Schaie (Eds.). Handbook of the psychology of aging. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 445-476.

Bruya, B., & Ardelt, M. (2018). Wisdom can be taught: A proof-of-concept study for fostering wisdom in the classroom. Learning and Instruction, 58(2018), 106-114. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.05.001.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

CACREP. (2016). Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Alexandria, VA: Autor.

Crits-Christoph, P., Gibbons, M. B., & Mukherjee, D. (2013). Process-outcome research. In M. J. Lambert (Eds.). Bergin & Garfield's handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 298-340.

Durodoye, B. A. (2013). Ethical issues in multicultural counseling. In C. L. Courtland, Multicultural issues in counseling (Eds.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association, pp. 295-307.

Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. New York, NY: International University Press.

Etezadi, S., & Pushkar, D. (2013). Why are wise people happier? Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(3), 929-950. doi:10.1007/s10902-012-9362-2.

Farozin, M. (2019). Counselor professional identity of counselor profession education. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 38(1), 104-119. doi:10.21831/cp.v38i1.22515.

Fluckiger, C., Del Re, A. C., Wampold, B. E., & Horvath, A. O. (2018). The alliance in adult psychotherapy: A meta-analytic synthesis. Psychotherapy, 55(4), 316-340. doi: 10.1037/pst0000172.

Frantz, G. (2014). Wisdom: Experience or education? Psychological Perspectives, 57(1), 1-3. doi:10.1080/00332925.2014.874896.

Glück, J., König, S., Naschenweng, K., Redzanowski, U., Dorner, L., Straßer, I., & Wiedermann, W. (2013). How to measure wisdom. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(405), 1-13. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00405.

Granello, D. H., & Young, M. E. (2012). Counseling today: Foundations of professional identity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Hanna, F. J., & Ottens, A. J. (1995). The role of wisdom in psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 5(3), 195-219. doi:1996-23741-001.

Hanna, F. J., Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C.-Y. (1999). Toward a new paradigm for multicultural counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(2), 125-134. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1999.tb02432.x.

Heppner, P. P., Wampold, B. E., & Kivlighan, D. M. (2008). Research design in counseling. USA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Jeste, D. V., Ardelt, M., Blazer, D., Kraemer, H. C., Vaillant, G., & Meeks, T. W. (2010). Expert consensus on characteristics of wisdom. The Gerontologist, 50(5), 668-680. doi:10.1093/geront/gnq022.

Krause, N. (2016). Assessing the relationship among wisdom, humility, and life satisfaction. Journal of Adult Development, 23(3), 140-149. doi:10.1007/s10804-016-9230-0.

Kunzmann, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2005). The psychology of wisdom: Theoretical and empiricl challanges. In R. J. Sternberg, & J. Jordan (Eds.), A handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 110-135.

Ladany, N., Mori, Y., & Mehr, K.E. (2013). Effective and ineffective supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 41(1), 28-47. doi: 10.1177/0011000012442648.

Levitt, H. M., & Piazza-Bonin, E. (2016). Wisdom and psychotherapy: Studying expert therapist' clinical wisdom to explicate common process. Psychotherapy Research, 26(1), 31-47, doi:10.1080/10503307.2014.937470.

Levitt, H. M., & Piazza-Bonin, E. (2017). The professionalization and training of psychologists: The place of clinical wisdom. Psychotherapy Research, 27(2), 127-142. doi:10.1080/10503307.2015.1090034.

Linacre, J. M. (2019). A user's guide to Winsteps and Ministep: Rasch-Model computer programs.

Marques, J. (2017). A mindful moral compass for twenty-first century leadership. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 10(1), 1-19. doi:10.22543/0733.101.1177.

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 197-215. doi:2004-18872-002.

McAuliffe, G., & Eriksen, K. (2011). Handbook of counselor preparation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Meeks, T. W., & Jeste, D. V. (2009). Neuroiology of wisdom. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(4), 355-365. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.8.

Milne, D., & Reiser, R. P. (2012). A rationale for evidence-based clinical supervision. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 42(3), 139-149. doi:10.1007/s10879-011-9199-8.

Moon, J. A. (2004). Handbook of reflective and experiential learning: Theory and practice. London: Routledge Falmer.

Moraitou, D., & Efklides, A. (2012). The wise thinking and acting questionnaire. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(1), 849-873. doi:10.1007/s10902-011-9295-1.

Muller-Merbach, H. (2010). Rational versus emotional intelligence plus wisdom. Omega, 38(1), 411-412. doi:10.1016/

Osbeck, R. M., & Robinson, D. N. (2005). Philosophical theories of wisdom. In R. J. Sternberg, & J. Jordan (Eds.). A handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61-83.

Osterlund, L. C. (2014). Wisdom in the helping relationship. Jesuit Higher Education, 3(2), 74-84.

Osterlund, L. C. (2016). Developing wisdom in counselors of the future: Ignatian pedagogy applied to counselor education and supervision. VISTAS Online, 2016(Article 35), 1-11.

Phan, L. T., Torres-Rivera, E., Volker, M., & Maddux, C. D. (2009). Wisdom in multicultural counseling: In omitted ingredient. Interamercan Journal of Psychology, 43(1), 154-161.

Schoon, D. (1987). Educating reflective practitioner. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Sternberg, R. J. (2013). Reform education: Teach wisdom and ethics. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(7), 44-47. doi:10.1177/003172171309400715.

Sternberg, R. J., & Hagen, E. S. (2019). Teaching for wisdom. In R. J. Sternberg, & J. Glück (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of wisdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 372-406.

Tan, S. Y. (2017). Clinical group supervision experiences of Singapore school counsellors. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 47(4), 1-14. doi:10.1080/03069885.2017.1371275.

Webster, J. D. (2019). Self-report wisdom measures: Strengths, limitations, and future directions. In R. J. Sternberg, & J. Glück (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of wisdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 297-320.

Webster, J. D., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2014). Wisdom and mental health across the life span. Journal of Gerontology: Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 69(2), 209-218. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbs121.

Yang, S.-Y. (2013). Wisdom and good lives: A process perpective. New Ideas in Psychology, 31(1), 194-201. doi:10.1016/2013.03.001.

Zacher, H., & Staudinger, U. M. (2018). Wisdom and well-being. In E. Diener, S. Oishi, & L. Tay (Eds.). Handbook of well-being. Salt Lake City: DEF Publishers, pp. 604-617.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter