Panggung Sutapa, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Suharjana Suharjana, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia


It is often heard the differences in opinion that with a lot of physical activity will make a child stupid. This experimental study aimed to determine the effect of kinesthetic-based and contemporary physical activity on early childhood on increasing gross motor skills. Research subjects were 68 children aged 5-6 years, 28 girls and 40 boys, divided into two groups, group A was treated with kinesthetic-based physical activity and group B received contemporary treatment. The instruments used to collect data on gross motor abilities consisted of five types, namely 20 meter sprinting, arm power by throwing a tennis ball, power legs with long jump without the start, balance by walking on a long beam 4 meters, and agility with Illinois tests. The results show that kinesthetic-based physical activity and contemporary-based activities can significantly increase gross motor skills in young children and seen from the difference in the mean effectiveness of kinesthetic-based physical activities is better for improving running ability, agility and balance, while the ability to throw a ball and the ability to jump better physical activity based on contemporary.


kinesthetic physical activity, contemporary physical activity, gross motor skills of early childhood

Full Text:



Abd, G. M., & El, M. (2016). Fine motor skill proficiency in children with and without down syndrome. Journal of Physical Therapy and Health Promotion, 4(1), 43-50. doi:10.18005/PTHP0401007.

Balasubramanian, S., & Siddegowda. (2013). Family and child correlates of motor development of toddlers in India. International Journal Current Research and Review, 05(02).

Bardid, F., Huyben, F., Deconick, F., Martelaer, K., De jan, S., & Lenoir, M. (2016). Convergent and divergent validity between the KTK and MOT 4-6 motor test in early childhood. Human Kinetics, 33(1), 33-48. doi:10.1016/j.scispo.2014.08.038.

Benjamin, A. S. (2008). Human learning: Biology brain and neuroscience. Armsterdam: Holland publication.

Behrn, A. K., Rodger, S., & Mickan, C. (2013). A comparison of the play skills of prescholl children with and without developmental coordination disorder. American Occupational Therapy Foundation, 33(4), 198 -208. doi:10.3928/15394492-20130912-03.

Bjartveit, C. & Panayotidis, L. (2017). Transforming early childhood educators conceptions of dark play and popular culture. Contemporary issues in early childhood, 18(2), 114-126. doi:10.1177/1463949117714075.

Bowman, S., Collins, J., Elliot, M., Fry, J., Glen-Lambert, M., Gunterman, H., … Wilkinson, S. (2010). Physical education model content standards for california public schools kindergarten through grade twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

Brewer, J. A. (2013). Introduction to early education: Preschool gross primary grades. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Crowley, K. (2014). Child development a practical introduction. London: Sage Publications.

Graham, G. (2008). Teaching children physical education: Becaming master teacher. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Book Co.

Green, K., & Hardman, K. (2005). Physical education for life long fitness: The physical best teachers guide. United Sates of America: National association for sport and physical education.

Hopple, C., & Bredekamp, S. (2009). Developmentaly appropriate practice in early childhood programs (3rd Ed). Washington, DC: National association for the education of young children.

Hill, E. L. (2010). The importance of motor skill in general motor development. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 52(10), 888. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03700.x.

Johnston, J. & Holacha, J. (2010). Early childhood and primary education readings and reflections. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Open University Press.

Kelly, L. E. (2006). Adapted physical education national standards: National consorstium for physical education and recreation for individuals with disabilities. New Zeland: Human Kinetics.

Keifer, J. J. (2015). Handwriting and fine motor skill development in the kindergarten classroom (Master’s thesis, Texas Christian University). Retrieved from

Kokstjen, J., Musalek, M., Stastny, P., & Golas, A. (2017). Fundamental motor skills of Czech children at the end of the preschool period, 47(4), 193-200. doi:105507/ag.2017.024.

Lemos, A. G., Avigo, E. L., & Barela, J. A. (2012). Physical education in kindergarten promote fundamental motor skill development. Physical Education, 2(1), 17-21. doi:10.4236/ape.2012.210.

Leta, J., & Rosa, S. (2012). Trends in scientific publications in physical education: A multifaceted field. Journal of Science Communication, 11(1), 1-9. doi:10.22323/2.11010203.

Lenner, J. W., & Kline, F. (2006).Learning disabilities and relate disorders characteristic and teaching strategies (10th ed.). New York, NY: Hougton Mifflin Compani.

Liukonen, J. (2007). Psychology for physical educators: Student in focus. Canada: Human Kinetics.

Liu, T., Michelle, H., & Sean, S. (2015). Motor proficiensy of the head start and typically eveloping children on MABC-2. Journal of Child & Adolencent Hehavio, 3(2), 1-4. doi:10.4172/2375-4494.1000198.

Lynch, M. (2015). More play pleased the perspectiveog kindergarten teachers on play in the classroom. American Journal of Play, 43(5), 383-395. doi:10.1007/s10463-014-0666-1.

Madrona, P. G. (2014). Site development and teaching of motor skills in early childhood education. Journal of Arts & Humanities, 3(11), 09-20. doi:10.18533/journal.v3i11.558.

Morrow, J. R., & Jackson. A. W. (2005). Measurement and evaluation in human performance. Canada: Human Kinetics.

Mukherji, P., & Louise, D. (2014). Foundations of early childhood principles and practice. London: SAGE Publication.

Munthali, A. C., Mvula, P. M., & Silo, L. (2014). Early childhood development: the role of community based childcare centres in

Malawi, 24(3), 305-315. doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-305.

Payne, V. G. & Larry, D. I. (2012). Human motor development: A lifespan approach. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Rebecca, A. (2014). Predicting motor skills from strengths and difficulties questionnaire score. Australian Educational and Development Psychologis, 31(1), 321-335. doi:10.1017/edp.2014.1.

Reeves, T. C. (1988). The impact of media prepered technology in schoole (A research report prepared for the bertelsmann foundation). Retrieved from

Rink, J. E. (2010). Teaching physical education for learning. New York, NY: McGrow Hill Humanities.

Ita, S. (2017). The influence of the practice method and speed on dwichargi explosive power. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 36(3), 446-457. doi:10.21831/cp.v36i3.15152.

Bahri, S., Adisasmita, Y., & Asnawi, M. (2016). The outcome of sprint skills learning. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 35(3), 432-442. doi:10.21831/cp.v35i3.11441.

Kawuryan, S., Srihastuti, W., & Supartinah (2018). The influence of traditional game-based and scientific approach-orientid thematic learning model toword creative thingking ability. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 37(1), 71-84. doi:10. 2183/cp.v37i1.18323.

Silverman, S. J., & Ennis, C. D. (2003).Learning in physical education: applying research to enhance instruction. New Zeland: Sherridam books.

Thobald, M. (2017). Childrens perspectives of play and learning for educational practice. Education sciences, 15(5), 345–362. doi:10.3390/educsci5040345.

Upton, P. (2012). Psychology express: Developmental psychology. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education.

Vanetsanou, F. & Kambas. A. (2010). Environmental factors affecting preschoolers motor development. Journal of Early Childhood Education, 37(4), 319-327. doi:10.1007/s 10643-009-0350-z.

Veldman, S. L., Jones, R, A., & Okey, A. D. (2016). Efficacy of groos motor skill intervention in young children: an updated systematic review. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med, 2(1), 1-7. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2015-000067.

Wang, J. H. (2009) AStudy on gross motor skills of preschool children: Journal of Reseach in Chilhood Education, 19(1), 32-43. doi:10.1080/02568540409595052.

Suherman, W. S. (2017). Developing, majeda, based on children play to optimaze growth and development for kindergartenes. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 36(2), 220-221. doi:10.21831/CP.V36i2.13542.

Yusof, S. M., Aiman, S.,& Zawi, M. K. (2013). Body composition index predict children motor skills proficiency. International Index Medical and Health Sciences, 7(7), 395-401.

Zawi, K., Lian, D., & Abdullah, R. T. (2014). Gross motor developmentof Malaysian hearing impaired male pre and early school children. International Education Studies, Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education, 7(13), 242-252. doi:10.5539/ies.v7n13p242.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter