Arbin Janu Setiyowati, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
Marthen Pali, Universitas Pelita Harapan Surabaya, Indonesia
Bambang Budi Wiyono, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
Triyono Triyono, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia


Counseling competence is a set of essential abilities which is prominent to be employed in conducting counseling. This counseling competence research took students of counseling as a counselor candidate. This study aims to analyze the correlation between basic knowledge, basic communication skill, and cultural skill to the counseling competence. This work used Ex Post Facto Causal Relationship Explanatory research design. The research subjects were 120 students of Department of Guidance and Counseling from three State Universities in Java Island. Samples were taken by using cluster random sampling technique. The data analysis was conducted through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique. The research results show that there is a significant relationship between knowledge, basic attitude, basic communication skill and cultural skill to the counseling competence. The implication of this research finding to the education of the Department of Guidance and Counseling is the significance of considering the factors forming the academic counseling competence to produce the professional counselor candidate.


basic knowledge; basic attitude; basic communication skill; cultural skill; counseling competence

Full Text:



Adigwe, P. & Okoro, E. (2016). Human communication and effective interpersonal relationship: An analysis of client counseling and emotional stability. International Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 5(3), 1-4. doi: 10.4172/2162-6359.1000336.

ASCA. (2012). ASCA school counselor competencies. Retrieved from

Barone, D. F., Hutchings, P. S., Kimmel, H. J., Traub, H. L., Cooper, J. T., & Marshall, C. M. (2005). Increasing empathic accuracy through practice and feedback in a clinical interviewing course. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(2), 156–171. doi: 10.1521/jscp.

Bates, M., & Stevenson, P. (1998). Good counseling is just excellent communication skills! Or is it. Counseling Association of Australia Inc. Journal, 1(1), 5-7.

Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th ed.). UER Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Bernes, K. B. (2005). The elements of effective counseling. NATCON Papers. Retrieved from

Brown, J. R., Holloway, E. D., Akakpo, T. F., & Aalsma, M. C. (2014). “Straight up”: enhancing rapport and therapeutic alliance with previously-detained youth in the delivery of mental health services. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(2), 193–203. doi: 10.1007/s10597-013-9617-3.

Bunu, H. Y. (2016). Pemindaian penerapan bimbingan dan konseling dengan pendekatan multikultural di SMA. Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan, 35(3), 386-394. doi: 10.21831/cp.v35i3.8892.

Corey, G. (2013). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Cornelius-White, J. H. D., & Carver, C. L. (2012). Effects of an encounter group for counselors-in-training on development of person-centered core conditions. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 9(3), 205–221.

Collins, S., & Arthur, N. (2010). Culture-infused counseling: A fresh look at a classic framework of multicultural counseling competencies. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 23(2), 203–216. doi: 10.1080/09515071003798204.

Constantine, M. G. (2002). Predictors of Satisfaction with counseling: racial and ethnic minority clients’ attitudes toward counseling and their ratings of their counselors’ general and multicultural counseling competence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(2), 255–263. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.49.2.255.

Depdiknas. (2008). Penataan pendidikan profesional konselor dan layanan bimbingan dan konseling dalam jalur pendidikan formal. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

Dollarhide, C. T., Shavers, M. C., Baker, C. A., Dagg, D. R., & Taylor, D. T. (2012). Conditions that create therapeutic connection: A phenomenological study. Counseling and Values, 57(2), 147–161. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-007X.2012.00014.x.

Egbochuku, E. O. (2010). Counseling communication skills: Its place in the training programme of a counseling psychologist. Edo Journal of Counseling, 1(1), 17–32. doi: 10.4314/ejc.v1i1.52380.

Elliot, R. G. (2011). When values and ethics conflict: the counselor’s role and responsibility. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 37(1), 39-45.

Farber, B. A., & Doolin, E. M. (2011). Positive regard and affirmation. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness 2nd ed. (pp. 168-186). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Feller, C. P., & Cottone, R. R. (2003). The importance of empathy in the therapeutic alliance. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 53–61. doi: 10.1002/j.2164-490X.2003.tb00168.x.

Fox, J. R. (2005). Transgender public clocking: Why do we stare? VISTAS Online, 42–55. Retrieved from

Fuertes, J. N., & Brobst, K. (2002). Clients’ ratings of counselor multicultural competency. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Diversity Psychology, 8(3), 214–233.

Fuertes, J. N., Stracuzzi, T. I., Bennett, J., Scheinholtz, J., Mislowack, A., Hersh, M., & Cheng, B. (2006). Therapist multicultural competency: A study of therapy dyads. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43(4), 480–490. doi: 10.1037/0033-3204.43.4.480.

Gitimu, N. P. (2010). Intercultural communication: Its impotence to various career fields and perspective by various authors. Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 1(2), 1-13.

Greenberg, L. S., Watson, J. C., Elliot, R., & Bohart, A. C. (2001). Empathy. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(4), 380–384. doi: 10.1037/0033-3204.38.4.380.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (Vol. 6). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hansen, T. J. (2007). Epistemic contradictions in counseling theories: Implications for the structure of human experience and counseling practice. Counseling and Values, 51, 111-124.

Hauser, M., & Hays, D. G. (2010). The slaying of a beautiful hypothesis: The efficacy of counseling and the therapeutic process. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development, 49(1), 32–44. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1939.2010.tb00085.x.

Hays, P. A. (2008). Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Hill, E. C., Spigel, B. S., Hoffman, A. M., Kivlighan, Jr., M. D., & Gelso, J. C. (2017). Therapist expertise in psychotherapy revisited. The Counseling Psychologist, 45(I), 7-53. doi: 10.1177/0011000016671006.

Horvath, A. O. (2000). The therapeutic relationship: From transference to alliance. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(2), 163–173. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(200002)56:2<163::AID-JCLP3>3.0.CO;2-D.

Hogan, M. (2012). The four skills of cultural diversity competence. California: Cengage Learning.

Inman, A. G. (2006). Supervisor multicultural competence and its relation to supervisory process and outcome. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 32(1), 73–85. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.2006.tb01589.x.

Ivey, A. E., Ivey, M. B., & Zalaquett, C. P. (2013). Intentional interviewing and counseling: Facilitating client development in a multicultural society. Nelson Education.

Kastberg, S. M., Jordan, R. A., Kiweewa, J. M., & Clingerman, T. (2014). Counselor as client: Emerging answers and new questions. The Practitioner Scholar: Journal of Counseling and Professional Psychology, 3(1), 1-16. doi: 10.1080/21507686.2010.493204.

Lambert, M. J., & Barley, D. E. (2002). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: therapist contributions and responsiveness to patients (pp. 17–32). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Lee, B. K. (2002). Development of a congruence scale based on the Satir model. Contemporary Family Therapy, 24(1), 217–239. doi: 10.1023/A:1014390009534.

Leibert, T. W., & Dunne-Bryant, A. (2015). Do common factors account for counseling outcome? Journal of Counseling & Development, 93(2), 225–235. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.2015.00198.x.

Lubis, B. D. (2011). Understanding that heals. Malang: Alta Pustaka.

Mancillas, A. (2006). Counseling students’ perceptions of counseling effectiveness. Vistas: Compelling Perspectives on Counseling, 191–194.

Moon, K. A. (2007). A client-centered review of rogers with Gloria. Journal of Counseling and Development. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6678.2007.tb00475.x.

NCGE. (2011, March). Counseling competences statement. Retrieved from

Orlinsky, D. E., & Ronnestad, M. H. (2005). Theoretical integration: Cycles of work and development. In D. E. Orlinsky, & M. H. Ronnestad (Eds.), How psychotherapists develop: A study of therapeutic work and professional growth (161-180). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Owen, J., & Hilsenroth, M. J. (2014). Treatment adherence: The importance of therapist flexibility in relation to therapy outcomes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61(2), 280-288. doi: 10.1037/a0035753.

Penn, S. L., & Post, P. B. (2012). Investigating various dimensions of play therapists’ self-reported multicultural counseling competence. International Journal of Play Therapy, 21(1), 14–29. doi: 10.1037/a0026894.

Reinkraut, R., Motulsky, S. L., & Ritchie, J. (2009). Developing a competent practitioner: Use of self in counseling psychology training. Asian Journal of Counseling, 16(1), 7–29.

Ridge, S., Campbell, W., & Martin, D. (2003). Can an experience of conscious identification affect a counsellor’s ability to sense and communicate unconditional positive regard? Theoretical and practice-based concerns. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 31(3), 275–288. doi: 10.1080/0306988031000147893.

Rogers, C. R. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21(2), 95–103. doi: 10.1037/h0045357.

Swank, J. M., Robinson, E. H., & Ohrt, J. H. (2012). Manifestation of altruism: Perceptions among counseling students in the United Kingdom. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12(1), 63–70. doi: 10.1080/14733145.2011.562981.

Swank, J. M., Lambie, G. W., & Witta, E. L. (2012). An exploratory investigation of the counseling competencies scale: A measure of counseling skills, dispositions, and behaviors. Counselor Education and Supervision, 51(3), 189–206. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6978.2012.00014.x.

Sawyer, C., Peters, M., & Willis, J. (2013). Self-efficacy of beginning counselors to counsel clients in crisis. The Journal for Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 5(2), 30–43. doi: 10.7729/52.0042.

Sweeney, A., Fahmy, S., Nolan, F., Morant, N., Fox, Z., Lloyd-Evans, B., ... Johnson, S. (2014). The relationship between therapeutic alliance and service user satisfaction in mental health inpatient wards and crisis house alternatives: A cross-sectional study. Plos One, 9(10), e100153. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100153.

Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70(4), 477–486. doi: 10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb01642.x.

Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2012). Counseling The culturally diverse: Theory and practice. New York, NY: Wiley.

Tracey, T. J. G., Wampold, B. E., Goodyear, R. K., & Lichtenberg, J. W. (2015). Improving expertise in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Bulletin, 50(1), 7-13.

Trusty, J., & Brown, D. (2005). Advocacy competencies for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 8(3), 259–265.

Van, W. J., Harmsen, J. & Bruijnzeels, M. (2002). Intercultural communication in general practice. European Journal of Public Health, 12(1), 63-68. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/12.1.63.

Wampold, B. E. (2011). Qualities and actions of effective therapists. Retrieved from

Wilkins, P. (2000). Unconditional positive regard reconsidered. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 28(1), 23–36. doi: 10.1080/030698800109592.

Yager, G. G., & Tovar-Blank, Z. G. (2007). Wellness and counselor education. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development, 46(2), 142- 153. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-1939.2007.tb00032.x.

Zaharna, R. S. (2000). Intercultural communication and international public relations: Exploring parallels. Communication Quarterly. 48(1), 85-99. doi: 10.1080/01463370009385582.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter