Basilius Redan Werang, Universitas Musamus Jl. Kamizaun - Merauke 99611, Papua Cell-Phone: 082397449719 or 085218968777, Indonesia


Abstract:This study was aimed to investigate the potential effect of workload, individual characteristics, and school climate on teachers’ emotional exhaustion in Christian elementary schools of Boven Digoel district, Papua. The problems guided the study, namely: (a) does workloadeffectsignificant positively on teachers’ emotional exhaustion elementary schools?; (b) does individual characteristics effectsignificant positively on teachers’ emotional exhaustion in elementary schools?; and (c) does school climate effect significant positively on teachers’ emotional exhaustion in elementary schools?. Four quantitative questionnaires using Likert’s scale were administered to 94 teachers who have been decided as respondents. Data were analyzed quantitatively using simple linear regression analysis technique by employing SPSS version 21 for windows. Results of the study revealed that workload, individual characteristics, and school climate partially effect significant positively on teachers’ emotional exhaustion in elementary schools. These findings might be worthwhile for the school supervisors as well as The Head of Education Office in regional government level to eliminate teachers emotional exhaustion by creating different programs to improve workload system and to improve school climate on one hand and, on the other hand, to foster teachers’ character of hard-working.

Keywords: workload, individual characteristics, school climate, emotional exhaustion, teachers



Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menginvestigasi pengaruh beban kerja, karakteristik individu,  dan iklim sekolah terhadap kelelahan emosional guru SD Kristen di Kabupaten Boven Digoel, Papua. Masalah yang menuntun penelitian ini adalah: (a) apakah beban kerja guru berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap kelelahan emosional guru SD?; (b) apakah karakteristik individu berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap kelelahan emosional guru SD?; dan (c) apakah iklim sekolah berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap kelelahan emosional guru SD? Empat angket kuantitatif yang menggunakan Skala Likert disebarkan kepada 94 guru yang menjadi responden. Data dianalisis secara kuantitatif menggunakan SPSS versi 21. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan bahwa beban kerja, karakteristik individu, dan iklim sekolah secara parsial berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap kelelahan emosional guru SD. Hasil penelitian ini dapat menjadi pertimbangan bagi penyelia sekolah dan Kepala Dinas Pendidikan pada level pemerintah Kabupaten Boven Digoel dalam mengupayakan berbagai program yang berbeda untuk memperbaiki sistem pembebanan kerja dan iklim sekolah serta mendorong karakter guru yang suka bekerja keras dan pantang menyerah.

Kata Kunci: beban kerja, karakteristik individu, iklim sekolah, kelelahan emosional, guru


beban kerja; karakteristik individu; iklim sekolah; kelelahan emosional; guru

Full Text:




Adejumobi, F. T. and Ojikutu, R. K. (2013). School organizational climate and teacher job performance in Lagos State Nigeria. Discourse Journal of Educational Research, 1(2), pp. 26-36.

Allard, K.; Haas, L.; &Hwang, C.P. (2011). Family-supportive organizational culture and fathers’ experiences of work-familyConflictinSweden. Gender, Workand Organization,18(2),141-157.

Anbar,A.& Eker, M. (2007).Therelationship between demographic characteristics andburnoutamong academiciansinTurkey.JournalofAcademicStudies, 34, 14-35.

Ashforth, B. E.& Humphrey, R. H.(1993). Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.

Becker, E.S.; Goetz, T.; Morger, V. &Ranellucci, J. (2014). The importance of teachers’ emotions and instructional behavior for their students’ emotion – An experience sampling analysis. Teaching and Teacher Education, 43, 15-26.

Brotheridge, C. M.& Lee, R.T. (2002). Testing a conservation of resources model of the dynamics of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 57-67.

Burke, R. J.& Greenglass, E. (1995). A longitudinal study of psychological burnout in teachers. Human Relations, 48(2), 187-202.

Cameron, S. J.; Horsburgh, M. E. & Armstrong-Stassen, M. (1994). Job satisfaction, propensity to leave, and burnout in RNs and RNAs: A multivariate perspective. Canadian Journal of Nursing Administration, 7(3), 43-64.

Cubucku, F. (2013). The significance of teachers’ academic emotions. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70, 649-653.

Davis, K. & Newstrom. (1996). Perilaku dalam organisasi. Edisi Tujuh. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Demerouti, E.; Mostert, K. & Bakker, A. B.(2010). Burnout and work engagement: A thorough investigation of the independency of both construct. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(3), 209-222.

Freiberg, H. J. & Stein, T. A. (1999). Measuring, improving and sustaining healthy learning environments, in H. J. Freiberg (ed.), School climate: measuring, improving, and sustaining healthy learning environments. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer Press.

Gawron, V.J. (2000). Human performance measures handbook.Mahwaw, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gates, C. H. (2007). Factors related to burnout in North Carolina public school teachers. Dissertation presented to the Graduate Faculty of North Carolina State University. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University.

Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 59-100.

Grandey, A. A. (2003). When “the sow must go on”: Surface and deep acting as predictors of emotional exhaustion and service delivery. The Academy ofManagement, 46, 86-96.

Grayson, J. L. & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(5), 1349-1363.

Guy, M. E.; Newman, M. A. & Mastracci, S. H. (2008). Emotional labor: Putting the service in public service. Armonk, NY: Sharpe.

Halpin, A. & Croft, D. (1963). The Organizational Climate of Schools. Chicago: The University of Chicago.

Hoy, W. K. & Forsyth, P. (1986). Effective supervision: Theory into practice. New York: Random House Inc.

Hoy, W. K.& Woolfolk, A. E. (1993). Teachers’ sense of efficacy and the organizational health of schools. The Elementary School Journal, 93, 356-372.

Hoy, W. K. & Sabo, D. J. (1998). Quality Middle Schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hoy, W. K., Smith, P. A. &Sweetland, S.R. (2002). The development of the organizational climate index for high schools: Its measure and relationship to faculty trust. High School Journal, 86(2), 38-50.

Hsieh, C. & Guy, M. E. (2009). Performance outcome: The relationship between managing the “heart” and managing client satisfaction. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 29(1), 41-57.

Hogekamp, Z.; Blomster, J.K.; Bursalioğlu, A.; Cálin, M.C.; Çetinҫelik, M.; Hasstrup, L. & van den Berg, Y.H.M. (2016). Examining the importance of teachers’ emotional support for students’ social inclusion using the one-with-many design. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-10.

Hurriyati, R. (2005). Bauran pemasaran dan loyalitas konsumen. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Ippolito, M.M.;Hines,D.A.;Mahmood,S. &Córdova, J.V.(2010).Pathwaysbetweenmarriageandparentingforwivesandhusbands:Theroleofcoparenting.FamilyProcess,49(1),59-73.

Ivancevich. J.; Olelans, M. & Matterson, M. (1997). Organizational behavior and management. Sydney: Irwin.

Irwin Law. (n/d). Individual characteristics. Retrieved on 15 August 2017 from:

Johnson, S.; Cooper, C. L.; Cartwright, S.; Donald, I.; Taylor, P. & Miller, C. (2005). The experience of work-related stress accross occupation. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20, 179-187.

Khan, F.; Yusoff, R. M.& Khan, A. (2014). Job demands, burnout and resources in teaching: A conceptual review. World Applied Sciences Journal, 30(1), 20-28.

Kyriacou, C. & Sutcliffe, J. (1977). Teacher stress: A review. Educational Review, 29, 299-306.

Lee, R. T.& Ashforth, B. E. (1993). A longitudinal study of burnout among supervisors and managers: Comparison between the Leiter and Maslach (1988) and Golembiewski et al. (1986) models. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 54(3), 369-398.

Lee, R. T.& Ashforth, B. E. (1996).A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(2), 123-133.

Lloyd, C. & King, R. (2004). A survey of burnout among Australian mental health therapist and social workers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39(9), 752-757

Manthei, R.; Gilmore, A.; Tuck, B. &Addair, V. (1996). Teacher stress in intermediate schools. Educational Research, 38(1), 3-9.

Maslach, C. &Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Maslach, C.; Jackson, S.& Leiter, M. (1996). Maslach burnout inventory manual. 3rd ed. Palo Alto (CA): Consulting Psychologist Press.

Maslach, C. & Goldberg. (1998). Prevention of burnout: New perspective. Apllied and Preventive Psychology, 7, 63-74.

Maslach, C.; Schaufeli, W. B. & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 407-420.

Merriam Webster Dictionary (n/d.). Workload. Retrieved on 21 October 2018 from:

Mitchell, M.M.; Bradshaw, C.P. & Leaf, P.J. (2010). Students and teachers’ perceptions of school climate: A multilevel exploration of pattern of discrepancy. Journal of School Health, 80(6), 271-279.

Muchinsky, P. (2000). Emotions in the workplace: The neglect of organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 801-805.

Mulyana, B. (2013). Hubungankonsepdiri, komitmen, danmotivasiberprestasidenganprestasirenanggayabebas. CakrawalaPendidikan, XXXII(3), 488-498.

Reid, G. B.; Potter, S. S. & Bressler, J. R. (1989). Subjective workload assessment technique (SWAT).Wright Patterson Airforce Base, Ohio: Harry G. Amstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. Retrieved on 12 March 2016 from:,ssl&ei=wgOIV7WrBsb4vgT-3KVg#q=reid+et+al.+(1989)+subjective+workload+assessment+technique

Robbins, S. (2007). Perilaku organisasi. Edisi Kesepuluh. Jakarta: PT Macanan Jaya Cemerlang.

Schaufeli, W. B. & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice. A critical analysis. London: Taylor & Francis.

Schaufeli, W.B.; Leiter, M. P. & Maslach, C. (2009). Burnout: 35 Years of Research and Practice. Career Development International, 14(3), 204-220.

Selamat, N.; Samsu, N. Z.& Kamalu, N. S. M. (2013). The impact of organizational climate on teachers’ job performance. E-Jounal Educational Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, p. 71-82.

Singh, K. & Billingsley, B. (1998). Professional support and its effect on teachers’ commitment. The Journal of Educational Research, 91(4), 229-239.

Subyantoro, A. (2009). Karakteristik individu, karakteristik pekerjaan, karakteristik organisasi, dan kepuasan kerja pengurus yang dimediasi oleh motivasi kerja (Studi pada pengurus KUD di Kabupaten Sleman). Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan, 11(1), 11-19.

Suriansyah, A. (2014). Hubunganbudayasekolah, komunikasi, dankomitmenkerjaterhadapkinerja guru sekolahdasarnegeri. CakrawalaPendidikan, XXXIII (3), 358-367.

Suriansyah, A. &Aslamiah. (2015). Strategikepemimpinankepalasekolah, guru, orang tua, danmasyarakatdalammembentukkaraktersiswa. CakrawalaPendidikan, XXXIV(2), 234-247.

Syarif, D. (2015). Karakteristik Individu. Retrieved on 2 February 2016 from: html

Thomason, A. C. (2011). Teacher personal and professional characteristics: Contributions to emotional support and behavior guidance in early childhood classroom. A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of The Graduate School at The University of North Carolina. Greensboro.

Virtanen, M.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Fuhrer, R.; Ferrue, J. E. & Kivimaki, M. (2012). Overtime work as a predictor of major depressive episode: A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study. Plos One, 7(1), e30719.

Weinger, M. B.; Reddy, S. B. & Slagle, J. M. (2004). Multiple measures of anesthesia workload during teaching and nonteaching cases. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 98(5), 1419-1425.

Werang, B. R. & Pure, E. A. G. (2018). Designing Strategy for Improving Teacher’s Organizational Commitment in the Remote Elementary Schools of Merauke District, Papua, Indonesia. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 7(1), 15-28.

Werang, B.R. &Agung, A.A.G. (2017b). Teachers’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and performance in Indonesia: A study from Merauke district, Papua. International Journal of Development and Sustainability, 6(8), 700-711.

Werang, B. R.; Loupatty, M. &Tambajong, H. (2016b). The effect of principals’ transformational leadership on schools’ life in Indonesia: An empirical study in elementary schools of Merauke district, Papua, Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 6(10), 258-273.

Werang, B.R.; Betaubun, M. & Pure, E. A. G. (2015). Factors influencing teachers’ organizational commitment (Case study on primary schools’ teachers in remote area of Merauke regency, Papua, Indonesia). Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research(JEPER), 2(10), 122-130.

Werang, B.R. & Lena, L. (2014). Relationship Between Principal’s Leadership, School Organizational Climate, and Teachers’ Job Performance at State Senior High Schools in Merauke Regency, Papua, Indonesia. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(6), 635-640.

Wigfield, A. (2005). Earlyadolescents development accross the middle school years: Implication for school counselors. American School Counseling Association.Retrieved on 2 February 2016

Wu, T.Y.; Hu, C. & Jiang, D.Y. (2012). Is subordinates’s loyalty a precondition of supervisor’s benevolent leadership? The moderating effect of supervisor’s altruistic personality and perceived organizational support. Asian J Soc Psychol, 15(3), 145-155.

Xiaoming, Y.; Ma, B.J.; Chang, C.L. & Shieh, C. J. (2014). Effectsofworkloadonburnoutandturnoverintention ofmedicalstaff:Astudy. Ethno Med, 8(3), 229-237.

Zhelthoukhova, K.; O’Dea, L. & Bevan, S. (2012). Taking the strain: The impact of musculoskeletal disorders on work and home life. Retrieved on 13 April 2016…



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View Our Stats

Flag Counter