Development of physical fitness test for mild intellectual disabilities aged 13-15 years

Sumaryanti Sumaryanti, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Sigit Nugroho, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Aqim Visalim, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Japhet Ndayisenga, University of Burundi, Burundi


This study aims to compile a physical fitness test for mild intellectual disability, test the suitability of the test in terms of suitability, convenience, and safety. The developed tests consist of a bench up and down test, a lying down test, a sitting test and a body mass index test.  The stages of development carried out include planning stage, preparation stage, trial, evaluation and revision, and final product. The experimental subjects in this study were children with mild intellectual disabilities aged 13-15 years, totaling 148 people who were divided into limited trial subjects, expanded trial subjects, and validity and reliability test subjects. Validity data analysis technique with two tests using the composite score method and using Doolittle analysis, and reliability data analysis using alpha coefficient analysis. Based on the results of the study, a set of tests was obtained to measure the physical fitness of persons with mild intellectual disabilities with very high validity and reliability tests, where the validity of the test for boys is 0.968 and for girls is 0.914. While the test reliability value for men is 0.896 and for women is 0.883. The physical fitness test was developed according to the characteristics of mild mental retardation which included components on cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition.


physical fitness; test and measurement; intellectual disability

Full Text:



Åberg, M. A. I., Pedersen, N. L., Torén, K., Svartengren, M., Bäckstrand, B., Johnsson, T., Cooper-Kuhn, C. M., Åberg, N. D., Nilsson, M., & Kuhn, H. G. (2009). Cardiovascular fitness is associated with cognition in young adulthood. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(49).

Arini, F. A. (2010). Pengukuran antropometri dan hubungannya dengan”golden standard”persen lemak tubuh, bioelectrical impedance analysis: studi validasi pada anak sekolah dasar tahun 2010. Fkm Ui, 1–101.

Chomitz, V. R., Slining, M. M., McGowan, R. J., Mitchell, S. E., Dawson, G. F., & Hacker, K. A. (2009). Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive results from public school children in the Northeastern United States. Journal of School Health, 79(1).

Chow, B. C., Choi, P. H. N., & Huang, W. Y. J. (2018). Physical activity and physical fitness of adults with intellectual disabilities in group homes in Hong Kong. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(7).

Columna, L. (2016). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education and Recreation (11th Edition). Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27(1).

Cvejić, D., Pejović, T., & Ostojić, S. (2013). Assessment of physical fitness in children and adolescents. Facta Universitatis - Series: Physical Education and Sport, 11(2).

de Winter, C. F., van den Berge, A. P. J., Schoufour, J. D., Oppewal, A., & Evenhuis, H. M. (2016). A 3-year follow-up study on cardiovascular disease and mortality in older people with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 53–54.

Dul, J., & Weerdmeester, B. (2003). Ergonomics For Beginners. In Ergonomics For Beginners.

Earle, R., & Baechle, T. R. (2004). The NSCA’s essentials of personal training text. In Strength and Conditioning Journal (Vol. 26, Issue 2).

Einarsson, I. T., Jóhannsson, E., Daly, D., & Arngrímsson, S. Á. (2016). Physical activity during school and after school among youth with and without intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 56.

Fernhall, B., & Pitetti, K. (2001). Limitations to physical work capacity in individuals with mental retardation. Clinical Exercise Physiology, 3(4).

Finlayson, J., Jackson, A., Cooper, S. A., Morrison, J., Melville, C., Smiley, E., Allan, L., & Mantry, D. (2009). Understanding predictors of low physical activity in adults with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 22(3).

Flegal, K. M., Tabak, C. J., & Ogden, C. L. (2006). Overweight in children: Definitions and interpretation. Health Education Research, 21(6).

Golubović, Š., Maksimović, J., Golubović, B., & Glumbić, N. (2012). Effects of exercise on physical fitness in children with intellectual disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(2).

Handayani, D. T., & Kartiko, D. C. (2021). Evaluasi Pengembangan Media Painting Stone Pada Siswa Disabilitas Netra. Jurnal Pendidikan Olahraga Dan Kesehatan Volume, 09(01).

Hartman, E., Houwen, S., Scherder, E., & Visscher, C. (2010). On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(5).

Hartman, E., Smith, J., Westendorp, M., & Visscher, C. (2015). Development of physical fitness in children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 59(5).

Hinckson, E. A., & Curtis, A. (2013). Measuring physical activity in children and youth living with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review. In Research in Developmental Disabilities (Vol. 34, Issue 1).

Hsieh, K., Hilgenkamp, T. I. M., Murthy, S., Heller, T., & Rimmer, J. H. (2017). Low levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(12).

Hutzler, Y., & Korsensky, O. (2010). Motivational correlates of physical activity in persons with an intellectual disability: A systematic literature review. In Journal of Intellectual Disability Research (Vol. 54, Issue 9).

Indraswari, S. H., Rahfiludin, M. Z., & Rosidi, A. (2022). Correlation between nutritional adequacy, Fe content, body fat percentage, and muscle mass percentage with physical fitness. Jurnal Keolahragaan, 10(1), 21–30.

Izquierdo-Gomez, R., Martínez-Gómez, D., Tejero-Gonzalez, C. M., Cabanas-Sánchez, V., Ruiz Ruiz, J., & Veiga, Ó. L. (2013). Are poor physical fitness and obesity two features of the adolescent with Down syndrome? Nutrición Hospitalaria, 28(4).

Katch, V. L., McArdle, W. D., & Katch, F. I. (2013). Essentials of exercise physiology: Fourth edition. In Essentials of Exercise Physiology: Fourth Edition.

Kemenkes. (2020). Standar Antropometri Anak. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 25(1).

Keys, A., Fidanza, F., Karvonen, M. J., Kimura, N., & Taylor, H. L. (2014). Indices of relative weight and obesity. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(3).

Koch, C., & Hasbrouck, L. (2013). Exploring the Link between Physical Activity , Fitness and Cognitive Function. Illinois Enhance PE Task Force.

Kwak, L., Kremers, S. P. J., Bergman, P., Ruiz, J. R., Rizzo, N. S., & Sjöström, M. (2009). Associations between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement. Journal of Pediatrics, 155(6).

Kyu HAN, M., & Yeon KIM, D. (2007). Development of Assessment Standards for Health-Related Physical Fitness in Persons with Intellectual Disability. 1995.

Lee, D. chul, Artero, E. G., Sui, X., & Blair, S. N. (2010). Mortality trends in the general population: the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness. In Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England) (Vol. 24, Issue 4 Suppl).

Lotan, M., Isakov, E., Kessel, S., & Merrick, J. (2004). Physical fitness and functional ability of children with intellectual disability: effects of a short-term daily treadmill intervention. TheScientificWorldJournal, 4.

Maïano, C. (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Obesity Reviews, 12(3).

Melville, C. A., Boyle, S., Miller, S., MacMillan, S., Penpraze, V., Pert, C., Spanos, D., Matthews, L., Robinson, N., Murray, H., & Hankey, C. R. (2011). An open study of the effectiveness of a multi-component weight-loss intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity. British Journal of Nutrition, 105(10).

Must, A., Curtin, C., Hubbard, K., Sikich, L., Bedford, J., & Bandini, L. (2014). Obesity Prevention for Children with Developmental Disabilities. Current Obesity Reports, 3(2).

Naidoo, R., & Coopoo, Y. (2012). The impact of a primary school physical activity intervention in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : health and physical activity. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation(18).

Nasrulloh, A., Apriyanto, K. D., & Prasetyo, Y. (2021). Pengukuran dan Metode Latihan Kebugaran (1st ed.). UNY Press.

Nasrulloh, A., Prasetyo, Y., Nugroho, S., Yuniana, R., & Wahyudin Pratama, K. (2022). The effect of weight training with compound set method on strength and endurance among archery athletes. Journal of Physical Education and Sport ® (JPES), 22(6), 1457–1463.

Nasrulloh, A., Yuniana, R., & Pratama, K. W. (2021). The effect of skipping combination with body weight training on cardiorespiratory endurance and body mass index (BMI) as a covid-19 prevention effort for overweight adolescents. Jurnal Keolahragaan, 9(2), 220–230.

Nasuti, G., Stuart-Hill, L., & Temple, V. A. (2013). The Six-Minute Walk Test for adults with intellectual disability: A study of validity and reliability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 38(1).

Noguchi, T., Demura, S., & Takahashi, K. (2013). Relationships between Sit-Ups and Abdominal Flexion Strength Tests and the Thickness of Each Abdominal Muscle. Advances in Physical Education, 03(02).

Noormohammadpour, P., Kordi, R., Dehghani, S., & Rostami, M. (2012). The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16(3).

Pekar, T. (2011). Pekar-Ims-Bmi.Pdf.

Pontifex, E. K., Gerlag, D. M., Gogarty, M., Vinkenoog, M., Gibbs, A., Burgman, I., Fearon, U., Bresnihan, B., Tak, P. P., Gibney, R. G., Veale, D. J., & FitzGerald, O. (2011). Change in CD3 positive T-cell expression in psoriatic arthritis synovium correlates with change in DAS28 and magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores following initiation of biologic therapy - a single centre, open-label study. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 13(1).

Prentice, J. C., Graeme Fincke, B., Miller, D. R., & Pizer, S. D. (2012). Primary care and health outcomes among older patients with diabetes. Health Services Research, 47(1 PART 1).

Rismayanthi, C., Zein, M. I., Mulyawan, R., Nurfadhila, R., Prasetyawan, R. R., & Antoni, M. S. (2022). The effect of low impact aerobic exercise on increasing physical fitness for the elderly. Jurnal Keolahragaan, 10(1), 137–146.

Ruiz, J. R., Gómez-Gallego, F., Santiago, C., González-Freire, M., Verde, Z., Foster, C., & Lucia, A. (2009). Is there an optimum endurance polygenic profile? Journal of Physiology, 587(7).

Salaun, L., & Berthouze-Aranda, S. E. (2012). Physical Fitness and Fatness in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 25(3).

Sands, W. A., & McNeal, J. R. (2002). A kinematic comparison of four abdominal training devices and a traditional abdominal crunch. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16(1).<0135:AKCOFA>2.0.CO;2

Santos, R., Mota, J., Okely, A. D., Pratt, M., Moreira, C., Coelho-E-Silva, M. J., Vale, S., & Sardinha, L. B. (2014). The independent associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity on cardiorespiratory fitness. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48(20).

Schünke, M., Schulte, E., Schumacher, U., Voll, M., & Wesker, K. (2012). Prometheus Lernatlas der Anatomie - Innere Organe. Prometheus Lernatlas Der Anatomie - Innere Organe.

Setiati, Siti; Alwi, Idrus; Sudoyono, Aru. W; K. Simadibrata, Marcellus; Setiyohadi, Bambang; Syam Ari, F. (2017). Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Jilid I. In Ilmu Penyakit Dalam.

Shields, N., Dodd, K. J., & Abblitt, C. (2009). Do children with down syndrome perform sufficient physical activity to maintain good health? A pilot study. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 26(4).

Skowroński, W., Horvat, M., Nocera, J., Roswal, G., & Croce, R. (2009). Eurofit Special: European fitness battery score variation among individuals with intellectual disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 26(1).

Slevin, E., Truesdale-Kennedy, M., Mcconkey, R., Livingstone, B., & Fleming, P. (2014). Obesity and overweight in intellectual and non-intellectually disabled children. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(3).

Smith, J. J., Eather, N., Morgan, P. J., Plotnikoff, R. C., Faigenbaum, A. D., & Lubans, D. R. (2014). The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. In Sports Medicine (Vol. 44, Issue 9).

Sugiyono. (2021). Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Pendidikan; Pendekatan Kuantitatif dan R&D. Jurnal Al-Hikmah, 1(1).

Sutherland, L., McGarty, A. M., Melville, C. A., & Hughes-McCormack, L. A. (2021). Correlates of physical activity in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review. In Journal of Intellectual Disability Research (Vol. 65, Issue 5).

T., H., R., V. W., & H., E. (2011). Physical activity in older adults with intellectual disabilities. European Geriatric Medicine, 2.

Temple, V. A., & Walkley, J. W. (2007). Perspectives of constraining and enabling factors for health-promoting physical activity by adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 32(1).

Van Dusen, D. P., Kelder, S. H., Kohl, H. W., Ranjit, N., & Perry, C. L. (2011). Associations of Physical Fitness and Academic Performance Among Schoolchildren. Journal of School Health, 81(12).

Vergroesen, P. P. A., Kingma, I., Emanuel, K. S., Hoogendoorn, R. J. W., Welting, T. J., van Royen, B. J., van Dieën, J. H., & Smit, T. H. (2015). Mechanics and biology in intervertebral disc degeneration: A vicious circle. In Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (Vol. 23, Issue 7).

Vuijk, P. J., Hartman, E., Scherder, E., & Visscher, C. (2010). Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(11).

Westendorp, M., Houwen, S., Hartman, E., & Visscher, C. (2011). Are gross motor skills and sports participation related in children with intellectual disabilities? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(3).

Whalen, S. J. (2013). Cyberathletes’ Lived Experience of Video Game Tournaments. Phd Diss.,University Of Tennessee , 2013.

Wittberg, R. A., Northrup, K. L., & Cottrell, L. A. (2012). Children’s aerobic fitness and academic achievement: A longitudinal examination of students during their fifth and seventh grade years. American Journal of Public Health, 102(12).

Wouters, M., Evenhuis, H. M., & Hilgenkamp, T. I. M. (2017). Systematic review of field-based physical fitness tests for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities. In Research in Developmental Disabilities (Vol. 61).

Wouters, M., Evenhuis, H. M., & Hilgenkamp, T. I. M. (2020). Physical fitness of children and adolescents with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation, 42(18).

Yanardag, M., Arikan, H., Yilmaz, I., & Konukman, F. (2013). Physical fitness levels of young adults with and without intellectual disability. Kinesiology, 45(2).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Keolahragaan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Keolahragaan is indexed by:


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Keolahragaan by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

All rights reserved p-ISSN: 2339-0662 | e-ISSN: 2461-0259

View My Stats