High school learning outcomes: The effect of self-regulation, resilience, and family environment

Amir Machmud, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia
Irfan Alfaridzi Ramadhan, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Indonesia


Inspired by the poor Economics learning outcomes of students in state senior high schools (SSHS) in Cianjur regency, this study aims to determine and analyze self-regulation mediating the effect of resilience and family environment on student learning outcomes. It employed an explanatory survey with questionnaires and observations to collect the data. The population of this study comprises all grade XI social science students of SSHSs in Cianjur Regency, while the sample members selected randomly include 223 students. The data collected was then analyzed by using multiple linear regression analysis with the mediator variable. The results likely show that (i) resilience and family environment are in the high category, while self-regulation and learning outcomes are in the medium category. (ii) Both resilience and family environment influence self-regulation, and (iii) resilience, family environment, and self-regulation affect learning outcomes. (iv) Resilience affects learning outcomes either directly or indirectly through self-regulation. (v) Family environment likely influences learning outcomes directly or indirectly through self-regulation. The results of this study imply that the concepts of resilience, family environment, and self-regulation are relevant and can estimate student learning outcomes.


high school learning outcomes; self-regulation; resilience; family environment

Full Text:



Ariyanti, N. S., & Dahlan, D. (2019). Self Regulated Learning Effect on Learning Outcomes in Moderated Student Learning Motivation. 65(Icebef 2018), 158–161. https://doi.org/10.2991/icebef-18.2019.38

Al-Zoubi, S. M., & Younes, M. A. B. (2015). Low Academic Achievement: Causes and Results. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(11), 2262. https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0511.09

Alwisol. (2019). Psikologi Kepribadian (Edisi Revisi) . UMM Press. https://ummpress.umm.ac.id/katalog/detail/psikologikepribadianedisirevisi.html

Artuch-Garde, R., González-Torres, M. del C., de la Fuente, J., Mariano Vera, M., Fernández-Cabezas, M., & López-García, M. (2017). Relationship between resilience and self-regulation: A study of Spanish youth at risk of social exclusion. Frontiers in Psychology, 8(APR), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00612

Atika, A., Machmud, A., & Suwatno, S. (2020). Pendekatan Meta-Analisis : Blended Learning terhadap Hasil Belajar DI Era Covid-19. Jurnal Basicedu, 4(4), 919–926. https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v4i4.488

Bai, B., & Wang, J. (2020). The role of growth mindset, self-efficacy and intrinsic value in self-regulated learning and English language learning achievements. Language Teaching Research. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820933190

Banarjee, P., & Kumar, K. (2014). International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach and Studies A Study on Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement among the Science Graduate Students. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Approach & Studies, 1(6), 329–342.

Barnard-Brak, L., Paton, V. O., & Lan, W. Y. (2016). Self-regulation across time of first-generation online learners. ALT-J: Research in Learning Technology, 18(1), 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687761003657572

CN, M., & FM, O. (2015). Relationship between Academic Resilience and Academic Achievement among Secondary School Students in Kiambu County, Kenya. International Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology, 01(s2). https://doi.org/10.4172/2469-9837.s2-003

Chen, D. L., Ertac, S., Evgeniou, T., Miao, X., Nadaf, A., & Yilmaz, E. (2022). Grit and Academic Resilience During the Covid-19 Pandemic. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4001431

Choe, D. E., Olson, S. L., & Sameroff, A. J. (2019). Effects of early maternal distress and parenting on the development of children’s self-regulation and externalizing behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 25(2), 437–453. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579412001162

Doostian, Y., Fattahi, S., Goudini, A. A., A’zami, Y., Massah, O., & Daneshmand, R. (2014). The Effectiveness of self-regulation in students’ academic achievement motivation. Practice in Clinical Psychology, 2(4), 261–270.

Ergen, B., & Kanadli, S. (2017). Öz düzenlemeli öğrenme stratejilerinin akademik başarıya etkisi: Bir meta analiz çalışması. Egitim Arastirmalari - Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 2017(69), 55–74. https://doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2017.69.4

Fang, G., Chan, P. W. K., & Kalogeropoulos, P. (2020). Social support and academic achievement of Chinese low-income children: A mediation effect of academic resilience. International Journal of Psychological Research, 13(1), 19–28. https://doi.org/10.21500/20112084.4480

Freddy, F., Lestari, S., & Prihartanti, N. (2021). Self-regulated learning sebagai mediator keterlibatan orang tua dan prestasi akademik siswa SMA. Persona:Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia, 10(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.30996/persona.v10i1.4321 G

Geary, D. C. (2011). Consequences, characteristics, and causes of mathematical learning disabilities and persistent low achievement in mathematics. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 32(3), 250–263. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e318209edef

Grijalva-Quiñonez, C. S., Valdés-Cuervo, A. A., Parra-Pérez, L. G., & García Vázquez, F. I. (2020). Parental involvement in mexican elementary students’ homework: Its relation with academic self-efficacy, self-regulated learning, and academic achievement. Psicologia Educativa, 26(2), 129–136. https://doi.org/10.5093/PSED2020A5

Haftu Shaine, M. (2015). The Effect of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Self-Efficacy on Academic Achievement of Primary School Students. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 4(3), 107. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.pbs.20150403.14

Hakyemez, S. (2020). Turkish early childhood educators on parental involvement. European Educational Research Journal, 14(1), 100–112. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904114565152

Hakiki, T., & Qolby, A. R. C. (2019). The Effect of Self-Regulated Learning on Academic Achievement Among Hafiz Students. 304(Acpch 2018), 197–200. https://doi.org/10.2991/acpch-18.2019.49

Hampden-Thompson, G., & Galindo, C. (2017). School–family relationships, school satisfaction and the academic achievement of young people. Educational Review, 69(2), 248–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2016.1207613

He, X., Wang, H., Chang, F., Dill, S. E., Liu, H., Tang, B., & Shi, Y. (2021). IQ, grit, and academic achievement: Evidence from rural China. International Journal of Educational Development, 80(November 2020), 102306. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2020.102306

Hong, E., Peng, Y., & Rowell, L. L. (2019). Homework self-regulation: Grade, gender, and achievement-level differences. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), 269–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2008.11.009

Hong, S.-H., Kim, J.-S., Ju, D.-B., & Author, C. (2020). The Effect of Resilience on Academic Stress and Academic Achievement in Nursing Students. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 11(9), 443–450. https://doi.org/10.15207/JKCS.2020.11.9.443

Ifeoma, E., & Chinaza, K. (2020). Unachukwu, G. C., Anierobi, Elizabeth Ifeoma, Nwosu, Kingsley Chinaza & Okeke, NkechiUzochukwu. 116–130.

Ion, I. E., Lupu, R., & Nicolae, E. (2020). Academic achievement and professional aspirations: between the impacts of family, self-efficacy and school counselling. Journal of Family Studies, 0(0), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2020.1746685

J., J., & K., S. (2015). Influence of Home Environment on Academic Achievement in Mathematics. IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM), 11(4), 26–31. https://doi.org/10.9790/5728-11422631

Jansen, R. S., van Leeuwen, A., Janssen, J., Jak, S., & Kester, L. (2019). Self-regulated learning partially mediates the effect of self-regulated learning interventions on achievement in higher education: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 28(September), 100292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2019.100292

Johnson, M. L., Taasoobshirazi, G., Kestler, J. L., & Cordova, J. R. (2015a). Models and messengers of resilience: a theoretical model of college students’ resilience, regulatory strategy use, and academic achievement. Educational Psychology, 35(7), 869–885. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.893560

Johnson, M. L., Taasoobshirazi, G., Kestler, J. L., & Cordova, J. R. (2015b). Models and messengers of resilience: a theoretical model of college students’ resilience, regulatory strategy use, and academic achievement. Educational Psychology, 35(7), 869–885. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2014.893560

Kadhiravan. (2020). Influence Of Family Environment On The Students ’ Use Of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 5(1).

Kerr, M. L., Rasmussen, H. F., Smiley, P. A., Buttitta, K. V., & Borelli, J. L. (2021). The development of toddlers’ emotion regulation within the family system: associations with observed parent-child synchrony and interparental relationship satisfaction. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 57, 215–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2021.06.004

KKrzensk, A. (2018). Influencing academic resilience and self-regulation in students: An intervention in mathematics. In Churchie-Libraries. https://www.churchie.com.au/academic/churchie-libraries

Khan, Y. M., Shah, M. H., & Sahibzada, H. E. (2020). Impact of self-regulated learning behavior on the academic achievement of university students. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 14(2), 117–130.

Khor, K. S., Udin, Z. M., Ramayah, T., & Hazen, B. T. (2016). Reverse logistics in Malaysia: The Contingent role of institutional pressure. International Journal of Production Economics, 175, 96–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2016.01.020

Kumi-Yeboah, A. (2020). Educational Resilience and Academic Achievement of Immigrant Students From Ghana in an Urban School Environment. Urban Education, 55(5), 753–782. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085916660347

Lau, E. Y. H., & Williams, K. (2021). Emotional regulation in mothers and fathers and relations to aggression in hong kong preschool children. Advance Online Publication. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1007/s10578-021-01165-y

Layco, E. P. (2020). Discerning the Intervening Roles of Students Mathematical Resilience and Academic Emotions between the Relationship of Home-School Ecological Structures and Achievement. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change. Www.Ijicc.Net, 14(8), 439–469. www.ijicc.net

Liu, Y., Zhao, L., & Su, Y.-S. (2022). The Impact of Teacher Competence in Online Teaching on Perceived Online Learning Outcomes during the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Moderated-Mediation Model of Teacher Resilience and Age. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(10), 6282. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106282

Luszczynska, A., de Wit, J. B. F., de Vet, E., Januszewicz, A., Liszewska, N., Johnson, F., Pratt, M., Gaspar, T., de Matos, M. G., & Stok, F. M. (2020). At-Home Environment, Out-of-Home Environment, Snacks and Sweetened Beverages Intake in Preadolescence, Early and Mid-Adolescence: The Interplay Between Environment and Self-Regulation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(12), 1873–1883. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-013-9908-6

Lindfors, P., Minkkinen, J., Rimpelä, A., & Hotulainen, R. (2018). Family and school social capital, school burnout and academic achievement: a multilevel longitudinal analysis among Finnish pupils. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(3), 368–381. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2017.1389758

Long, H., & Pang, W. (2016). Family socioeconomic status, parental expectations, and adolescents’ academic achievements: a case of China. Educational Research and Evaluation, 22(5–6), 283–304. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2016.1237369

Mahmudi, A., Sulianto, J., & Listyarini, I. (2020). Hubungan Perhatian Orang Tua Terhadap Hasil Belajar Kognitif Siswa. Jurnal Pedagogi Dan Pembelajaran, 3(1), 122. https://doi.org/10.23887/jp2.v3i1.24435

Mohan, V. (2020). Self-Regulated Learning Strategies Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Relation To Academic Resilience. Voice of Research, 9(3), 27–34.

Mohan, V., & Verma, M. (2020). Examining the Relationship between Learning Strategies and the Four C ’ s of Academic Resilience among School Students. 9(5), 1419–1424. https://doi.org/10.21275/SR20517111714

Morgan, S. E. (2013). Self Regulation And Cultural Orientation On The Academic Achievement Of University Students On Distance Education In Kampala , Uganda. 2(4), 1–8.

Mutawah, A., Thomas, R., & Khine. (2017). Investigation into Self-regulation , Engagement in Learning Mathematics and Science and Achievement among Bahrain ... International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 12(3), 633–653. https://www.iejme.com/article/investigation-into-self-regulation-engagement-in-learning-mathematics-and-science-and-achievement

Muwaga, M., Nashori, F., & Sholeh, A. (2020). The Impact of Social Environment on the Sexual Self-Regulation of University Students in Uganda. International Journal of Islamic Educational Psychology, 1(2), 75–88. https://doi.org/10.18196/ijiep.v1i2.10011

Muizaddin, R., & Santoso, B. (2016). Model Pembelajaran Core Sebagai Sarana Dalam Meningkatan Hasil Belajar Siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Manajemen Perkantoran, 1(1), 224. https://doi.org/10.17509/jpm.v1i1.3470

Mwangi Nyambura Cecilia., Anthony Muriith Ireri., Elizabeth W, Mwaniki., Wambugu, S. K. (2018). Relationship Among Type Of School, Academic Resilience And Academic Achievement Among Secondary School Students In Kiambu County, Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 1092–1107.

Novianti, S. D., & Supardi, E. (2018). Kompetensi pedagogik guru dan motivasi belajar siswa sebagai determinan terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan Manajemen Perkantoran, 4(1), 107. https://doi.org/10.17509/jpm.v4i1.14961

Obrentz, S. B., & Commander, N. (2012). Predictors of science success: The impact of motivation and learning strategies on college chemistry performance. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 3501091, 2020. https://search.proquest.com/docview/926827403?accountid=16285%0Ahttp://br9xy4lf5w.search.serialssolutions.com?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/Education+Database&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation&rft.genre=dissert

Oloye, H. T., & Flouri, E. (2021). The role of the indoor home environment in children’s self-regulation. Children and Youth Services Review, 121, 105761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105761

Pappattu, J., & Vanitha, J. (2017). a Study on Family Environment and Its Effect on Academic Achievement in Science Among Secondary School Students. International Journal of Research -GRANTHAALAYAH, 5(6), 428–436. https://doi.org/10.29121/granthaalayah.v5.i6.2017.2052

P’Pool, K. B. (2012). Using Dweck’s Theory of Motivation to Determine How a Student’s View of Intelligence Affects Their Overall Academic Achievement. 49. http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses%0Ahttp://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/1214

Purwanto, F., Mujanah, S., & Sumiati, S. (2022). the Effect of Self-Leadership, Self-Ability and Resilient on the Performance of Surabaya Satreskrim Police Investigators Through Organizational Commitments As Intervening Variables. Business and Finance Journal, 7(1), 45–60. https://doi.org/10.33086/bfj.v7i1.2739

Rytkönen, H., Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Virtanen, V., & Postareff, L. (2012). Factors affecting bioscience students’ academic achievement. Instructional Science, 40(2), 241–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-011-9176-3

Ramasubramanian, M., Patel, D., Turner, M. R., & Ybarra, V. (2022). The influence of life narrative themes on resilience and life outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 185(August 2021), 111235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111235

Sacntrock, J. (2015). Psikologi Pendidikan Edisi Kedua. Kencana.

Shanwal*, S. M. and V. K., & Gautam. (2014). Role of Family Environment in Developing Self Efficacy of Adolescents. Integrated Journal of Social Sciences, 1(Supplement 1), 28–30. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12370

Schunk, D. H. (2013). Self-Regulation and Learning. In Handbook of Psychology, Second EditionHandbook of Psychology, Second Edition.

Tanjung, A. (2020). Influence Of Family Environment Against Student Achievement In Class Vii Smp Negeri 1 Barus. Wahana Inovasi Pendidikan, 9(1).

Top, N., Liew, J., & Luo, W. (2017). Family and School Influences on Youths’ Behavioral and Academic Outcomes: Cross-Level Interactions between Parental Monitoring and Character Development Curriculum. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 178(2), 108–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.2017.1279118

Usman & Fadilah. (2020). The Effect of Family Environment, Environmental Campus, Motivation and Learning to Learn Student Behavior. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3510669

Usman, O., & Fadilah, R. N. (2020). The Effect of Family Environtment, Environmental Campus, Motivation and Learning to Learn Student Behavior. SSRN, 1–14.

Unachukwu, G. C. at al. (2020). Influence of Academic Self-efficacy and Resilience on Academic Achievement Among Secondary School Students in Aguata LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria. Journal of The Nigerian Academy of Education, 16(2).

Umar, E., Fip, P., Makalunsenge, F., & Fip, P. (2020). Novateur Publications International Journal of Innovations in Engineering Research and Technology [Ijiert] the Influence of the Family Environment on Student Learning Outcomes in Ips Lesson in Sdn 83 Kota Tengah Kota Gorontalo. 7(12), 155–161.

Yan, Z. (2020). Self-assessment in the process of self-regulated learning and its relationship with academic achievement. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(2), 224–238. https://doi.org/10.1080/02602938.2019.1629390

Yi, S. K. M., Steyvers, M., Lee, M. D., & Dry, M. J. (2012). The Wisdom of the Crowd in Combinatorial Problems. Cognitive Science, 36(3), 452–470. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1551-6709.2011.01223.x

Yusuf, M. (2011). The impact of self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and self-regulated learning strategies on students’ academic achievement. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2623–2626. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.158

Zhang, J., Kuusisto, E., & Tirri, K. (2017). How Teachers’ and Students’ Mindsets in Learning Have Been Studied: Research Findings on Mindset and Academic Achievement. Psychology, 08(09), 1363–1377. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2017.89089

Zheng, L., & Li, X. (2016). The effects of motivation, academic emotions, and self-regulated learning strategies on academic achievements in technology-enhanced learning environment. Proceedings - IEEE 16th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2016, 376–380. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2016.128

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v41i3.43562


  • There are currently no refbacks.


Social Media:



 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://journal.uny.ac.id/index.php/cp/index.

View Our Stats

Flag Counter