SCHOOL CULTURE AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL TEACHERS FROM URBAN AND RURAL AREAS IN CHINA

Zhang Ling, Shangrao Normal University
Jiang Na, Shangrao Normal University
Siaw Yan-Li, University of Malaya
Joko Sriyanto, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract


Rural teacher recruitment and retention has become a common concern globally including in China. In order to understand the underlying reasons that cause rural teachers’ attrition, this study aims to explore the school culture and professional development of the teachers from urban and rural areas of China provinces, by examining three study objectives: teaching location and socio-demographic factor; challenges faced by rural teachers; and strategies to develop teaching professionalism in rural schools. A mixed-method approach involving survey forms and interview sessions was used for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS and ATLAS.ti which included inferential and thematic analysis. A number of 1547 teachers under Compulsory Education in Jiangxi, China were involved as participants. Results indicated that teaching location is significantly related to the socio-demographic condition. Additionally, five challenges reported by rural school teachers include parental involvement, working environment, salary, personal growth, and family environment. Meanwhile, three main strategies used for professional development are educational beliefs, collaboration relationships, and teacher self-training. The outcome of this study would contribute towards effective and feasible measures to stabilize rural teachers, promote educational and social equity, and promote the integration of urban and rural teachers. Findings conclude the importance to explore further and propose the corresponding measures to improve the working and living status of rural teachers.


Keywords


compulsory education; living and working conditions; school culture; teaching professionalism; rural and urban areas

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, T., & Malloy, W. W. (2007). Teacher retention in a teacher resiliency-building rural school. The Rural Educator, 28(2), 19-27. https://doi.org/10.35608/ruraled.v28i2.482.

Allensworth, E., Ponisciak, S., & Mazzeo, C. (2009). The school teachers leave: Teacher mobility in Chicago public schools. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research. http://ccsr.uchicago.edu/content/publications.

Bai, Z. F., & Fan, X. Z. (2013). Study on primary school teachers’ housing problems in remote areas. Journal of Primary and Secondary School Principals, 9, 16-19. (in Chinese).

Burton, M., Brown, K., & Johnson, A. (2013). Storylines about rural teachers in the United States: A narrative analysis of the literature. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 28(12), 1-18. https://jrre.psu.edu/sites/default/files/2019-08/28-12.pdf.

Chuan, B. (2006). Policies for compulsory education disparity between urban and rural areas in China. Frontiers of Education in China, 1(1), 40-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11516-005-0003-y.

Darling-Hammond, L., Hyler, M. E., & Gardner, M. (2017). Effective teacher professional development. PaloAlto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. https://learningpolicyinstitute.org.

Dreison, K. C., Luther, L., Bonfils, K. A., Sliter, M. T., McGrew, J. H., & Salyers, M. P. (2016). Job burnout in mental health providers: a meta-analysis of 35 years of intervention research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000047.

Hobbs, R. (2017). Approaches to teacher professional development in digital media literacy education. In B. De Abreu, P. Mihailidis, A. Lee, J. Melki, & J. McDougall (Eds). International handbook of media literacy education. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 88-113. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315628110.ch5.

Fu, W. D. & Fan, X. Z. (2018). On the supporting Project of Rural Teachers (2015-2020): Effect, problems, and countermeasures.Journal of Central China Normal University (Humanities and Social Sciences), 57(1), 163-173. (in Chinese).

Gao, J. W. (2016). Attrition of backbone teachers in rural schools and corresponding strategies. Journal of Teaching and Management, 22, 21-23. (in Chinese).

Gelfand, M., Erez, M., & Aycan, Z. (2007). Cross-cultural organizational behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1), 479-514. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085559.

Grimmett, P., & Echols, F. (2000). Teacher and administrator shortages in changing times. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne De L’éducation, 25(4), 328-343. https://doi.org/10.2307/1585854.

Guarino, C. M., Santibañez, L., & Daley, G. A. (2006). Teacher recruitment and retention: A review of recent empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 76(2), 173-208. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076002173.

Guo, S. B., Guo, Y., Beckett, G., Li, Q., & Guo, L. Y. (2013). Changes in Chinese education under globalization and market economy: Emerging issues and debates. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 43(2), 244-264. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2012.721524.

Hanushek, E. A., & Welch, F. (2006). Handbook of the Economics of Education (vol 2). St. Louis: lsevier.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2002). The teacher shortage: a case of wrong diagnosis and wrong prescription. NASSP Bulletin, 86(631), 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1177/019263650208663103.

Lasalvia, A., & Tansella, M. (2011). Occupational stress and job burnout in mental health. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 20(4), 279-285. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2045796011000576.

Li, M. (2011). Discussion and reflection on the system drawbacks of urban and rural. Education Equity, 12, 117-120. (in Chinese).

Li, S. L. (2020). Correlation among mental health, work stress and job burnour of rural teachers. Revista Argentina de Clínica Psicológica, 2020(1), 1345-1350. https://doi.org/10.24205/03276716.2020.194.

Liu, S. (2012). The influences of school climate and teacher compensation on teachers’ turnover intention in China. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 32(5), 553-569.https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410.2012.691074.

Liu, S., & Teddlie, C. (2010). Differences in perceptions of effective school processes in differentially effective schools in China. International Journal of Management in Education, 4(3), 348-368. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMIE.2010.033466.

Liu, S. H., Zhu, X. H., & Wang, S. (2019). Study on the stability mechanism of rural teachers. Journal of Northeast Normal University (Philosophy and Social Science), 4, 122-127. (in Chinese).

Lo, L. N. K. (2019). Teacher and teaching in China: a critical reflection. Teachers and Teaching, 25(5), 553-573. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2019.1632823.

Lv, T. (2019). From the cultural dimension to study on the issue of rural teacher turnover. Journal of Teaching and Management, 32, 6-8.

Meng, L., & Liu, S. (2008). Mathematics teacher stress in Chinese secondary schools. Journal of Educational Enquiry, 8(1), 73-96. https://ojs.unisa.edu.au/index.php/EDEQ/article/view/485.

Pan, L. (2009). The existent problem of minority compulsory education and countermeasures in the western poor region. Social Scientist, 146(6), 65-7.

Pang, L. J. & Han, X. Y. (2006). Problems and countermeasures on rural compulsory educational teachers’ team in China. Educational Research, 27(9), 47-53. https://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/ceric/er/200600270009/0047.htm.

Pang, L. J. & Han, X. Y. (2006). Construction of rural teachers at compulsory education stage in China: Problems and solutions. Journal of Educational Research, 9, 47-53. (in Chinese).

Perryman, J. & Calvert, G. (2019). What motivates people to teach, and why do they leave? Accountability, performativity and teacher retention. British Journal of Educational Studies, 68(1), 3-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.2019.1589417.

Shi, C. Y. & Yang, Y. X. (2004). Study on the outflow of primary and secondary school teachers in economic less-developed region. Journal of Teaching and Management, 36, 17-18.

The Sixth National Population Census 2010. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm.

Wang, Y. L. & Li, H. Q. (2017). An empirical analysis of rural teachers’ intention of Turnover: Based on the survey in Yunnan Province. Journal of East China Normal University, 35(3), 134-141. https://doi.org/10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2017.03.014. (in Chinese).

Wang, D., Wang, J. Y., Li, H., & Li, L. (2016). School context and instructional capacity: A comparative study of professional learning communities in rural and urban schools in China. International Journal of Educational Development. 52, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.10.009.

White, L. M., Aalsma, M. C., Holloway, E. D., Adams, E. L., & Salyers, M. P. (2015). Job-related burnout among juvenile probation officers: implications for mental health stigma and competency.

Wu, Y. L. & Tian, C. (2019). Research on the construction of incentive mechanism for rural teachers based on ERG Theory. Higher Education Forum, 8, 62-66. (in Chinese).

Xie, G. M., Ma, Q. & Yang, W. F. (2012). The status quo and countermeasures of balanced development of urban and rural teachers at compulsory education stage in provinces. Theory and Practice of Education, 32(20), 12-14.

Yu, L. L. & Wu, Z. H. (2011). The investigation on the status quo and reasons of rural teacher attrition at compulsory education stage: Based on two counties from Liaoning Province. Educational Measurement and Evaluation, 6, 22-25. (in Chinese).

Zhao, K. Y. & Liu, S. H. (2019). Research on the construction of rural teachers since the reform and opening up. Theory Monthly, 1, 154-160. (in Chinese).

Zhao, Z. P. & Qin, Y. Y. (2016). Who is prone to turn over? An empirical study on the opportunity cost and the turnover intention of teachers in compulsory education. Education and Economics, (1), 53-62. (in Chinese).

Zhou, Y. S. (2012). A brief report of bilingual education for the Dongxiangs: A new initiative. In G. H. Beckett & G. Postiglione (Eds.). China’s assimilationist language policy: Impact on indigenous minority literacy and social harmony. London: Routledge, pp. 75-83.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/cp.v39i3.31580

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




 

Social Media:

     


 

 Creative Commons License
Jurnal Cakrawala Pendidikan by Lembaga Pengembangan dan Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan UNY is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://journal.uny.ac.id/index.php/cp/index.

Translator
 
 web
analytics
View Our Stats

Flag Counter