Blended learning model in Seafarers Training Program for level II technical expert based on the needs of the shipping industry

F. Pambudi Widiatmaka, Politeknik Ilmu Pelayaran Semarang, Indonesia
Tri Joko Raharjo, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
I Made Sudana, Universitas PGRI Semarang, Indonesia
Wirawan Sumbodo, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
Rizki Setiadi, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia


Nowadays, the Level II Technical Expert Seafarers' Training Program learning is conventional. This is burdensome for students due to the increased cost of living for students and needs to be revised. The coronavirus pandemic also limits direct learning. This article discusses the blended learning model for Seafarers Training Program for Level II Technical Experts. This research uses mixed methods. Quantitative methods are used to determine student responses to learning conditions. Student response data was taken using a questionnaire filled in by 41 students. Qualitative methods are used in finding the Blended Learning Model in the Level II Technical Seafarers Training Program Based on the needs of the Shipping Industry. In preparing the data model, the literature review includes blended learning, e-modules, and problem-based learning. The learning model is based on a literature review using the principles of education management. The descriptive analysis describes the model findings of Blended learning at Level II Technical Seafarers' Training. The findings in this article are that The MixPAM (Mixture Blended Problem-based And e-Module) model is a mixture of blended learning and problem-based learning e-module. The results show that the MixPAM model is hypothetically effective and efficient in improving student skills according to industry needs. Professional skills include ship engine repair maintenance (according to industry requirements), ship electrical, control, and ship management systems. Interpersonal skills include communication, teamwork, responsibility, and critical thinking.


Blended learning; conceptual model; learning model; Seafarers Training Program; shipping industry

Full Text:



Ahluwalia, R., & Pinha, D. (2014). Decision support system for production planning in the ship repair industry. Industrial and Systems Engineering Review, 2(1), 52–61.

Alammary, A., Sheard, J., & Carbone, A. (2014). Blended learning in higher education: Three different design approaches. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 30(4), 440–454.

Alsarayreh, R. (2020). Using blended learning during COVID-19. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 15(6), 1544–1556.

Argaw, A. S., Haile, B. B., Ayalew, B. T., & Kuma, S. G. (2016). The effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) instruction on students’ motivation and problem solving skills of physics. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 13(3), 857–871.

Astalini, A., Darmaji, D., Kurniawan, W., Anwar, K., & Kurniawan, D. A. (2019). Effectivenes of using e-module and e-assessment. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM), 13(9), 21–39.

Bozorgpour, R., Omaraee, B., & Asadi, M. V. Z. (2017). Study and analysis of obstacles and challenges facing ship-repair industry in Iran. Open Journal of Marine Science, 7(4), 485–493.

Cahyono, A. N., Zaenuri, Z., & Subagja, M. (2019). The design of blended learning modules for higher education. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1387(1), 012121.

Caner, M. (2010). A blended learning model for teaching practice course. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 78–97.

Cicek, K., Akyuz, E., & Celik, M. (2019). Future skills requirements analysis in maritime industry. Procedia Computer Science, 158, 270–274.

Dziuban, C., Graham, C. R., Moskal, P. D., Norberg, A., & Sicilia, N. (2018). Blended learning: The new normal and emerging technologies. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(1), 3.

Frasyniuk, T., & Primachova, N. (2018). Marine shipping industry within the system of global economic relations sustainability. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.3), 451.

Gibbon, C., & Marcangelo, C. (2012). A PBL evaluation toolkit: Building the evidence-base to understand effective practices. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1686–1691.

Grzybowska, K., & Łupicka, A. (2017). Key competencies for Industry 4.0. Economics & Management Innovations, 250–253.

Harahap, F., Nasution, N. E. A., & Manurung, B. (2019). The effect of blended learning on student’s learning achievement and science process skills in plant tissue culture course. International Journal of Instruction, 12(1), 521–538.

Jaenudin, A., Baedhowi, P., & Murwaningsih, T. (2017). The effectiveness of the e-module of economics learning on problem-based learning used to improve students’ learning outcomes. Proceedings of the International Conference on Teacher Training and Education 2017 (ICTTE 2017), 30–36.

Jeffrey, L., Milne, J., Suddaby, G., & Higgins, A. (2014). Blended learning: How teachers balance the blend of online and classroom components. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 13, 121–140.

Jerry, M., & Yunus, M. M. (2021). Blended learning in rural primary ESL classroom: Do or don’t. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 20(2), 152–173.

Kalgora, B., & Christian, T. M. (2016). The financial and economic crisis, its Impacts on the shipping industry, lessons to learn: The container-ships market analysis. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4(1), 38–44.

Khan, A. I., Qayyum, N., Shaik, M. S., Ali, A. M., & Bebi, C. V. (2012). Study of blended learning process in education context. International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science, 4(9), 23–29.

Kintu, M. J., Zhu, C., & Kagambe, E. (2017). Blended learning effectiveness: the relationship between student characteristics, design features and outcomes. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(1).

Lalima, L., & Dangwal, K. L. (2017). Blended learning: An innovative approach. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 129–136.

Lambert, C., & Ashwin, P. (2021). Using student feedback to reflect on authentic PBL (aPBL) in undergraduate engineering education. Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 8(1), 4–12.

Maisiri, W., Darwish, H., & van Dyk, L. (2019). An investigation of industry 4.0 skills requirements. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 30(3), 90–105.

Mouzakitis, G. S. (2010). The role of vocational education and training curricula in economic development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 3914–3920.

Nugroho, A. W., Baga, L. M., & Iskandar, B. H. (2018). Strategi pengembangan bisnis PT Pelayaran Bahtera Adhiguna dalam industri pelayaran. ALBACORE Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Laut, 1(3), 321–336.

Panyahuti, P., Rukun, K., & Waskito, W. (2018). Development of learning module based on blended learning in network design lesson. Proceedings of the International Conferences on Educational, Social Sciences and Technology - ICESST 2018, 467–471.

Prawiyogi, A. G., Purwanugraha, A., Fakhry, G., & Firmansyah, M. (2020). Strategi pengembangan bisnis PT Pelayaran Bahtera Adhiguna dalam industri pelayaran. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar, 11(1), 94–101.

Saksono, H. (2013). Ekonomi biru: Solusi pembangunan daerah berciri kepulauan studi kasus Kabupaten Kepulauan Anambas. Jurnal Bina Praja, 5(1), 1–12.

Sari, D. I. (2019). Centre of technology sebagai model praktis industri pelayaran untuk kompetensi lulusan jurusan ketatalaksanaan pelayaran niaga pada perguruan tinggi vokasi maritim di Indonesia. Prosiding Industrial Research Workshop and National Seminar, 10(1), 1257–1263.

Serevina, V., Sunaryo, S., Raihanati, R., Astra, I. M., & Sari, I. J. (2018). Development of e-module based on Problem Based Learning (PBL) on heat and temperature to improve student’s science process skill. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 17(3), 26–36.

Seruni, R., Munawaroh, S., Kurniadewi, F., & Nurjayadi, M. (2020). Implementation of e-module flip PDF professional to improve students’ critical thinking skills through problem based learning. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1521(4), 042085.

Shankar, P. R. (2010). Problem-based learning: A review. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 4(5), 3249–3254.

Simone, C. De. (2014). Problem-based learning in teacher education: Trajectories of change. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(12), 17–29.

Sugiani, K. A., Degeng, I. N. S., Setyosari, P., & Sulton, S. (2019). The effects of electronic modules in constructivist blended learning approaches to improve learning independence. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 9(10), 82–93.

Sukardjo, M., Ibrahim, N., Ningsih, H. P., Widodo, A., & Nugroho. (2020). Implementation-blended learning in Indonesian Open Junior High School. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 10(12), 638–654.

Turan, E., & Asar, R. (2020). Ship repair and maintenance management: Application of PERT analysis on a tanker vessel. Journal of Ship Production and Design, 36(3), 181–188.

Ulger, K. (2018). The effect of problem-based learning on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of students in visual arts education. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 12(1).

Wahidah, N. I., Ibrahim, N., & Muslim, S. (2019). E-module: Design a learning material with Rowntree and Hannafin Model for higher education. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER), 8(12), 3373–3376.

Wahidi, S. I., Virmansyah, V. M., & Pribadi, T. W. (2021). Study on implementation of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) system on determination of indirect costs in ship production. Kapal: Jurnal Ilmu Pengetahuan Dan Teknologi Kelautan, 18(1), 1–7.

Williams, J. C., & Paltridge, D. J. (2017). What we think we know about the tutor in problem-based learning. Health Professions Education, 3(1), 26–31.

Yew, E. H. J., & Goh, K. (2016). Problem-based learning: An overview of its process and impact on learning. Health Professions Education, 2(2), 75–79.

Yulando, S., Sutopo, S., & Chi, T. F. (2019). Electronic module design and development: An interactive learning. American Journal of Educational Research, 7(10), 694–698.

Zhonggen, Y. (2015). Blended learning over two decades. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 11(3), 1–19.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Our journal indexed by:

ISSN 2088-2866 (print) || ISSN 2476-9401 (online)

View Journal Visitor Stats