The readiness of prospective teachers based on online teaching competencies and learning activities in COVID-19 pandemic: A cluster analysis-based approach

Ismiyati Ismiyati, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia
Heri Retnawati, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Suranto Suranto, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Haryanto Haryanto, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Mar’atus Sholihah, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Tusyanah Tusyanah, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia


Many things should be done to prepare prospective teachers for providing qualified teachers. The COVID-19 pandemic is forcing teachers, including prospective teachers, to improve competency and online teaching activities. This quantitative research aims to map the readiness of prospective-teacher students of Office Administration (OA) Department related to online learning by measuring their teaching competencies and learning activities. These two variables are considered capable of measuring online teaching readiness. The research sample is 72 students. The data were collected using a questionnaire distributed via a Google Form and analyzed using K-Means with SPSS 24.0 software. The results showed that the number of clusters at low readiness level was 11 students (10 female and one male) or 15%, the number of clusters at moderate readiness level was 38 students (32 female and six male) or 53%, and the number of clusters at moderate level high readiness was 23 students (18 female and five male) or 32%. These findings show that the OA Department’s prospective teachers still need to be provided with online teaching materials or skills, considering that only 32% of respondents have a high level of readiness for online learning. The community is the indicator that needs improvement for OA Department prospective teachers’ readiness. It can be pursued by forming the latest and most trusted community.


Teacher candidate readiness; Online Teaching Competencies; Online Learning Activeness

Full Text:



Alghamdi, A., Karpinski, A. C., Lepp, A., & Barkley, J. (2020). Online and face-to-face classroom multitasking and academic performance: Moderated mediation with self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 102, 214–222.

Baker, P. R. A., Demant, D., & Cathcart, A. (2018). Technology in public health higher education. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 30(7), 655–665.

Bertelsen, O. W., & Bødker, S. (2003). Activity theory. In J. M. Carroll (Ed.), HCI models, theories, and frameworks: Toward a multidisciplinary science (pp. 291–324). Morgan Kaufmann.

Blau, I., & Shamir-Inbal, T. (2017). Digital competencies and long-term ICT integration in school culture: The perspective of elementary school leaders. Education and Information Technologies, 22(3), 769–787.

Cabero-Almenara, J., Gutiérrez-Castillo, J. J., Palacios-Rodríguez, A., & Barroso-Osuna, J. (2020). Development of the teacher digital competence validation of DigCompEdu check-in questionnaire in the University context of Andalusia (Spain). Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(15), 6094.

Chauhan, S. (2017). A meta-analysis of the impact of technology on learning effectiveness of elementary students. Computers and Education, 105, 14–30.

Chen, S-. C., Li, S-. H., & Li, C-. Y. (2011). Recent related research in technology acceptance model: A literature review. Australasian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(9), 124–127.

Daryanto, D. (2012). Media pembelajaran. PT Sarana Tutorial Nurani Sejahtera.

Eickelmann, B., & Gerick, J. (2020). Lernen mit digitalen Medien. Langsam Vermisse Ich Die Schule, 16, 153–162.

Ghozali, I. (2016). Aplikasi analisis multivariate dengan program IBM SPSS (8th ed.). Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Guan, Y., Guo, Y., Bond, M. H., Cai, Z., Zhou, X., Xu, J., Zhu, F., Wang, Z., Fu, R., Liu, S., Wang, Y., Hu, T., & Ye, L. (2014). New job market entrants’ future work self, career adaptability and job search outcomes: Examining mediating and moderating models. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(1), 136–145.

Gudono, G. (2017). Analisis data multivariat. BPFE-Yogyakarta.

Hamdani, D. S. Al. (2013). Mobile learning: A good practice. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103, 665–674.

Händel, M., Stephan, M., Gläser-Zikuda, M., Kopp, B., Bedenlier, S., & Ziegler, A. (2022). Digital readiness and its effects on higher education students’ socio-emotional perceptions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 54(2), 267–280.

Hatlevik, O. E., Throndsen, I., Loi, M., & Gudmundsdottir, G. B. (2018). Students’ ICT self-efficacy and computer and information literacy: Determinants and relationships. Computers and Education, 118, 107–119.

Hermawan, H. D., Deswila, N., & Yunita, D. N. (2018). Implementation of ICT in education in Indonesia during 2004-2017. Proceedings - 2018 International Symposium on Educational Technology, ISET 2018, (July 2018), 108–112.

Huber, S. G., & Helm, C. (2020). COVID-19 and schooling: Evaluation, assessment, and accountability in times of crises—reacting quickly to explore key issues for policy, practice and research with the school barometer. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 32(2), 237–270.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2002). Cooperative learning methods: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Education, 12(1), 5–24. Retrieved from

Kalloo, R. C., Mitchell, B., & Kamalodeen, V. J. (2020). Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in Trinidad and Tobago: Challenges and opportunities for teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 46(4), 452–462.

Kemp, N., & Grieve, R. (2014). Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates’ opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 5.

Kluzer, S., & Priego, L. P. (2018). DigComp into action: Get inspired, make it happen. A user guide to the European Digital Competence Framework (Y. P. Carretero, R. Vourikari, M. Cabrera, & W. O’Keefe (eds.)). JRC Science Hub.

König, J., Jäger-Biela, D. J., & Glutsch, N. (2020). Adapting to online teaching during COVID-19 school closure: Teacher education and teacher competence effects among early career teachers in Germany. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 608–622.

Koran, J. K. C. (2002). Aplikasi e-learning dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran di Sekolah Malaysia. Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia.

Kozma, R. B. (2011). ICT, education transformation, and economic development: An analysis of the US national educational technology plan. E-Learning and Digital Media, 8(2), 106–120.

Lipowsky, F., & Rzejak, D. (2015). Key features of effective professional development programmes for teachers. RICERCAZIONE, 7(2), 27–51.

Majid, A. (2008). Perencanaan pembelajaran: Mengembangkan standar kompetensi guru. PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

McFarlane, A. E. (2019). Devices and desires: Competing visions of a good education in the digital age. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(3), 1125–1136.

Parsanlal, N. (2020, April 14). MOE: Almost 60k students can’t access online learning. LOOP News.

Preston, C. C., & Colman, A. M. (2000). Optimal number of response categories in rating scales: Reliability, validity, discriminating power, and respondent preferences. Acta Psychologica, 104(1), 1–15.

Rohani, A. (2010). Pengelolaan pengajaran: Sebuah pengantar menuju guru profesional (rev. ed.). Rineka Cipta.

Roig-Vila, R., Mengual-Andrés, S., & Quinto-Medrano, P. (2015). Primary teachers’ technological, pedagogical and content knowledge. Comunicar, 23(45), 151–159.

Rusman, R. (2013). Belajar dan pembelajaran berbasis komputer: Mengembangkan profesionalisme guru abad 21. CV Alfabeta.

Selwyn, N. (2012). Making sense of young people, education and digital technology: The role of sociological theory. Oxford Review of Education, 38(1), 81–96.

Sholikah, M., & Harsono, D. (2021). Investigating student's satisfaction and acceptance of digital technology in higher education in Indonesia. TEM Journal, 10(2), 932–938.

Slameto, S. (2015). Belajar dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Rineka Cipta.

Tafazoli, D., Abril, C. A. H., & Parra, M. E. G. (2019). Technology-based review on computer-assisted language learning: A chronological perspective. Pixel-Bit, Revista de Medios y Educación, 54, 29–44.

Umbara, U., Wahyudin, W., & Prabawanto, S. (2021). How to predict good days in farming: Ethnomathematics study with an ethnomodelling approach. JRAMathEdu (Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education), 6(1), 71–85.

Vázquez-Cano, E., Urrutia, M. L., Parra-González, M. E., & Meneses, E. L. (2020). Analysis of interpersonal competences in the use of ICT in the Spanish university context. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(2), 1–12.

Wicaksono, S. R. (2012). Kajian pembelajaran online berbasis Wiki di lingkup perguruan tinggi. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 6(1), 51-58.

Williamson, B., Potter, J., & Eynon, R. (2019). New research problems and agendas in learning, media and technology: The editors’ wishlist. Learning, Media and Technology, 44(2), 87–91.

Zhang, J., O’Reilly, K. M., Perry, G. L. W., Taylor, G. A., & Dennis, T. E. (2015). Extending the functionality of behavioural change-point analysis with k-means clustering: A case study with the little penguin (Eudyptula minor). PLoS ONE, 10(4), 1–14.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Find REID (Research and Evaluation in Education) on:


ISSN 2460-6995 (Online)

View REiD Visitor Statistics