Developing speaking skill learning materials based on Natural Order Hypothesis

Arif Setiawan, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Dwiyanto Djoko Pranowo, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia


The literature on the teaching of English at higher education in Indonesia reflects that both English and non-English departments pay equal attention to the four language skills, namely speaking, listening, reading, and writing. However, there are still issues in the teaching of speaking skills especially in the English instruction for the non-English majors. This research tried to solve the issues using interventions in the form of learning materials focused on speaking skills based on Natural Order Hypothesis by Brown (1973), Burt (1974, 1975), and Krashen (1982, 2009, 2013) as well as the lesson plans used in the teaching of English for non-English majors in a state university in Yogyakarta. The materials were validated by subject experts and a field trial involving participants of 30 non-English department students was conducted. The effectiveness of the materials was measured using a validated instrument that had been pilot-tested to 10 respondents of the same backgrounds as the participants of the field trial. The research instrument utilized Sugiyono’s (2015) formula with the results showing a percentage of 86.37 out of a possible 100%, which means that the materials are in the category of ‘highly acceptable’.


material development; instrument validation; speaking skills; non-English department; natural order hypothesis

Full Text:



Abrar, M., Mukminin, A., Habibi, A., Asyrafi, F., Makmur, M., & Marzulina, L. (2018). “If our English isn’t a language, what is it?” Indonesian EFL student teachers' challenges in speaking English. The Qualitative Report, 23(1), 129-145.

Aditya, R. C. A. (2017). “The Difficulties Encountered by Non-English Department Students in Speaking English (A Descriptive Study on Third Semester Students at Education Faculty of University Muhammadiyah of Purwokerto Academic Year 2016/2017)”. Unpublished thesis. English Education Department: Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto.

Akhyak & Indramawan, A. 2013. Improving the Students’ English Speaking Competence through Storytelling (Study in Pangeran Diponegoro Islamic College (STAI) of Nganjuk, East Java, Indonesia). International Journal of Language and Literature, 1(2).

Alexander, R. (2010). Dialogic Teaching Essentials. University of Cambridge.

Anderson, T., & Shattuck, J. (2012). Design-based research: A Decade of progress in education research? Educational Researcher, 41(1), 16-25.

Asjuh, N., Rahman, M. A. & Salija, K. (2019). Developing Local Folktale-Based English Materials for Teaching Speaking Skill in Senior High School. Universitas Negeri Makasar. Retrieved January, 11, 2022, from:

Badan Standar Nasional Indonesia. (2014). Instrumen Penilaian Buku Ajar. Retrieved January, 13, 2017, from:

Baddeley, A. D. (2004). The Psychology of Memory. In A. Baddeley, M. Kopelman, & B. Wilson (Eds.), The Essential Handbook of Memory Disorders for Clinicians. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bahrani, T., Tam, S. S., & Nekoueizadeh, M. (2014). Second Language Acquisition in Informal Setting. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(8), 1714-1723.

Borg, W. R. and Gall, M. D. (1983). Educational Research. An Introduction. Longman Inc.

Brown, R. (1973). A First Language. Harvard University Press.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles. An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Longman.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2004. Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. San Francisco State University.

Carter, R. and McCarthy, M. (2017). Spoken Grammar: Where are We and Where are We Going?. Applied Linguistics, 38(1),1–20.

Cullen, R. (2008). Teaching grammar as a liberating Force. ELT Journal, 62, 772-780.

Cummins, J. (2007). Rethinking Monolingual Instructional Strategies in Multilingual Classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10, 221–240.

Dewi, A. (2014). Perception of English: A Study of Staff and Students at Universities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Dewi, N., & Jimmi, J. (2018). The Correlation Between Vocabulary Mastery and Self Esteem on Students’ Speaking Skill. Wanastra: Jurnal Bahasa Dan Sastra, 10(1), 78–83.

Dewi, R., & Wiedarti, P. (2020). Developing culture-based materials with integrated performance assessment. LingTera, 7(2), 141-148.

Dulay, H. and Burt, M. (1974). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning, 24, 37-53.

Ellis, R. (1993). Second language acquisition and the structural syllabus. TESOL Quarterly, 27, 91–113.

Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2014). Principles of Instructed Second Language Learning. In M. Celce-Murcia, D. M. Brinton & M. A. Snow (2014). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (pp. 31–45). National Geographic Learning/Heinle Cengage Learning.

Fanani, A. (2014). Identifying non-English Department Student Weakness Points on Commonly Found EPT Grammar Problems (a students’ need analysis). Educate Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra, 3(2), 24. UNIPDU.

Fardhani, A. E. (2016). Teacher's Language of Instruction and Student's Second Language Acquisition. Pancaran Pendidikan, 5(1) 119-132.

Faridah, F. & Sulistiono, E. (2018). Designing English Learning Materials for Informatic Study Program at Engineering Faculty of Islamic University of Lamongan. E-Link Journal, 5(1).

Fitriani, Y. (2019). Developing a Guideline of English Teaching Materials Based on Local Culture for VII Graders in Paser Regency East Kalimantan. INOVISH JOURNAL, 4(2).

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. W. (2012). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Pearson.

Haidara, Y. (2016). Psychological Factors Affecting English Speaking Performance for English Learners in Indonesia. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(7), 1501-1504.

Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching 4th eds. Pearson Longman.

Harris, D. (1974). Testing English as a Second Language. Mc Graw Hill Book Company.

Harris, T., dan Sherblom. (2008). Small Group and Team Communication. Pearson Education Inc.

Hassan, A. (2014). The Effect of Using Task-Based Learning in Teaching English on the Oral Performance of the Secondary School Students. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Education 3(2).

Hastuti, F.D (2017). Managing Effective English Speaking Skill Assessment for Non-English Major Students. MABIS, 8(2), 82-92.

Hong, Y. (2008). “On Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition”. US-China Education Review, 5(1), 61-67.

Jatmiko, J. (2017). The Implementation of Pair Work to Improve Students’ English Speaking to the Second Semester at Pharmacist Program of Health Sciences Faculty of Kediri University. English Education Journal of English Teaching and Research, 2(1), 13.

Jin, M. (2014). A Case Study of Non-English Major College Students' Motivation in English Language Learning. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 4(2), 252-259.

Juhana. (2018). Psychological Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking in English Class (A Case Study in a Senior High School in South Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia). Journal of Education and Practice, 3(12), 100-110.

Krashen, S. (1982). Principles & Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Pergamon Press Inc.

Krashen, S. D. (2009). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, 1st Internet Ed. Pergamon.

Krashen, S. D. (2013). Second Language Acquisition: Theory, Applications, and Some Conjectures. Cambridge University Press.

Krashen, S. (2013). The Case for Non-targeted, Comprehensible Input. Journal of Bilingual Education Research & Instruction, 15(1), 102- 110.

Kurniawan, E., & Parwati, E. (2018). The effect of a narrative structure and English proficiency on university students’ speaking performance: Pausing patterns. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8, 402-408.

Kusuma, I.P.I, Mahayanti, N.W.S., Gunawan, M.H., Rachman, D., & Pratiwi, N.P.A. (2021). How well do e-portfolios facilitate students’ learning engagement in speaking courses during the COVID-19 pandemic? Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 351-363.

Kusumawati, F. P. (2017). Developing English Learning Material for Speaking Skill Based on ADDIE. Premise Journal, 6(1).

Laili, R.N. & Nashir, M. (2020). The Use of Zoom Meeting for Distance Learning in Teaching English to Nursing Students during Covid-19 Pandemic. UICELL Conference No 4 Proceedings 2020. Retrieved January 11, 2022, from:

Liu, D. (2015). A Critical Review of Krashen’s Input Hypothesis: Three Major Arguments. Journal of Education and Human Development, 4(4), 139-146.

Mali, Y. C. G. (2014). Students' Attributions on Their English Speaking Enhancement. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 4(2), 32-43.

McGriff, S. J. (2000). Instructional System Design (ISD): Using the ADDIE Model. Instructional Systems. College of Education, Penn State University.

Mckay, S. L. and Brown, J.D. (2015). Teaching and Assessing EIL in Local Contexts Around the World (1st ed.). Routledge.

Megawati, F. (2016). Kesulitan Mahasiswa Dalam Mencapai Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris Secara Efektif. PEDAGOGIA: Jurnal Pendidikan, 5(2), 147.

Mulya, R. (2016). Teaching Speaking by Applying Pair Work Technique. English Education Journal, 1, 74–86.

Namaziandost, E. & Imani, A. (2020). Compensatory Strategies and Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Speaking Fluency: Focusing on Self-Repetition and Comprehension Check Strategies. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation (IJLLT), 3(3).

Nikmah, S. U. (2019). Linguistic Difficulties Encountered by Non-English Department Students in Speaking English (A Study at Walisongo English Club UIN Walisongo). Unpublished thesis. English Education Department: Universitas Islam Negeri Walisongo.

Ninsisana, W. & Nawa A.T. (2019). Analisis Kebutuhan Bahasa Inggris Mahasiswa Jurusan Ekonomi Syariah. Tapis: Jurnal Penelitian Ilmiah, 3(1), 17-38.

Nuraini, K. (2016). The Barriers of Teaching Speaking English for EFL Learners. ELLITE: Journal of English Language, Literature, and Teaching, 1(1).

Nurmalia, M., & Purbani, W. (2018). Developing extensive reading supplementary materials for XI grad students at madrasah. LingTera, 5(2), 112-119.

Oktaviani, Dian. (2018). Developing English Learning Material of Basic Vocabulary for Young Learners”. Unpublished thesis. English Study Program: Jambi University. Retrieved January 11, 2022, from:

Prabandari, R., Sutarsyah, C. & Mahpul, M. (2017). Developing English Speaking Materials for Tenth Grade Students of Hotel Accommodation Study Program at SMKN 1 Sukadana. U-JET: Unila Journal of English Teaching, 6(4).

Rahmaniah, R. & Asbah, A. (2019). The Speaking Difficulties Encountered by Non-English Students in Language Classroom. Linguistics and ELT Journal, 9(22).

Rambe, S. (2014). The Natural Approach: Theory and Guidance for Classroom Practices, 2 (1), 49.

Ramdani, J. M. & Rahmat (2018). Promoting speaking spontaneity in large classes: An action research approach in an Indonesian EFL setting. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 8, 388-401.

Ratnasari, A.G. (2020). EFL Students' Challenges in Learning Speaking Skills: A Case Study in Mechanical Engineering Department. Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 20-38.

Rexhaj, Xh. et al. (2018). Acquisition of Albanian as a first language from the perspective of natural order hypothesis. Thesis, 7 (2).

Rezaeyan, M. (2014). On the impact of task-based teaching on the academic achievement of Iranian EFL learners (case study: female high school students in Yasuj). International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 7(3), 476-493.

Rohimajaya, N. A., Sudirman, A. & Hamer, W. (2021). Developing English Materials for the Students of Information System Department at Technology and Information Faculty, Mathla’ul Anwar University Banten. LANGUAGE CIRCLE: Journal of Language and Literature, 15(2).

Rukminingsih, Adnan, G., & Latief, M. A.(2020). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan,Penelitian Kuantitatif, Penelitian Kualitatif, Penelitian Tindakan Kelas. Erhaka Utama.

Sachdeva, M. S. (2011). A New Approach to Teaching of English in India. Tandon Publications.

Shteiwi, A. & Hamuda, A. (2016). Oral Communication Problems Encountering English Major Students: Causes & Remedies. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 4(2), 19-26.

Sugiyono (2015). Metode Penelitian Kombinasi (Mix Methods). Alfabeta.

Tomlinson, B. (2012). Materials development for language learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 45(2), 143-179.

Tomlinson, B., & Masuhara, H. (2013). Adult Coursebooks. ELT Journal, 67(2), 233-249.

Wahyudi. 2016. Developing English Materials Based on Content-based Approach for Nursing Students of STIKES Payung Negeri Pekanbaru. Proceeding of the Fourth International Seminar on English Language Teaching (ISELT-4).

Wegner, J. P. (2013). The Application of Second Language Acquisition Theory to New Testament Greek Pedagogy. Unpublished thesis. Honors Program: Liberty University.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Arif Setiawan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Our Journal indexed by:


 Creative Commons License
LingTera is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at

View My Stats