Metacognitive skill assessment model through the blended learning management system in vocational education

Ridwan Daud Mahande, Informatics and Computer Engineering Education Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Fitrah Asma Darmawan, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia
Jasruddin Daud Malago, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia


This study aims to develop an assessment rubric and produce a metacognitive skill model through the Blended Learning Management System (BLEMS) in project-based learning in vocational education. This study uses the Research and Development (R&D) model of Borg and Gall (1983). The research subjects consisted of two experts (validity), ten students (small group), and 35 students (expanded) from the Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Makassar, Indonesia. Data were collected using questionnaires and tests: developed assessment instruments and rubrics with three main aspects, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Conducted assessment tests through self, peer, and teacher assessments. Then analyzed the results of the Assessments with descriptive statistics. The results showed that the Rubric and metacognitive assessment model through BLEMS for vocational education met the validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The integration of metacognitive skill elements: planning, monitoring, and evaluation with self-assessment, peer assessment, and teacher assessment can be an assessment method to measure students' metacognitive thinking skills in project-based learning in vocational education.


Blended Learning Management System; Metacognitive skill; Project-based learning; Vocational Education

Full Text:



Al-araibi, A. A. M., & Naz, M. (2018). Technological aspect factors of e-learning readiness in higher education institutions : Delphi technique. Education and Information Technologies, 24, 567–590.

Altıok, S., Başer, Z., & Yükseltürk, E. (2019). Enhancing metacognitive awareness of undergraduates through using an e-educational video environment. Computers and Education, 139, 129–145.

Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. D. (1983). Educational research : An introduction (4th ed.). Longman.

Costello, E., Holland, J., & Kirwan, C. (2018). The future of online testing and assessment : question quality in MOOCs. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15(42), 1–14.

Doppelt, Y. (2005). Assessment of project-based learning in a MECHATRONICS context. Journal of Technology Education, 16(2), 7–24.

Earl, L. M., Katz, M. S., Manitoba Education, Citizenship, and Y., & Western and Northern Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Education. (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind. In Learning. Winnipeg : Manitoba Education, Citizenship & Youth.

Flavell, J. H., Miller, P. H., & Miller, S. A. (1979). Cognitive development (L. Pearson (ed.); 4th ed.). Prentice Hall.

Gotoh, Y. (2016). Development of critical thinking with metacognitive regulation. International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age, Celda, 353–356.

Hampf, F., & Woessmann, L. (2017). Vocational vs. general education and employment over the life-cycle: New evidence from PIAAC. CESifo Economic Studies, 63(3), 255–269.

Hsu, C. M., Yeh, Y. C., & Yen, J. (2009). Development of design criteria and evaluation scale for web-based learning platforms. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 39(1), 90–95.

International Labour Organisation (ILO). (2019). A skilled workforce for strong, sustainable and balanced growth: a G20 training strategy (1st ed., Issue November). International Labour Organization.

Jacobs, J. E., & Paris, S. G. (1987). Children’s metacognition about reading: issues in definition, measurement, and instruction. Educational Psychologist, 22(3–4), 255–278.

Johnson, R. (2004). Peer assessments in physical education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(8), 33–40.

Jung, S., Chul, J., & Nam, S. (2019). Impact of vocational education and training on adult skills and employment: An applied multilevel analysis. International Journal of Educational Development, 66(April 2019), 129–138.

Kaur, M. (2013). Blended learning - Its challenges and future. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 612–617.

Kew, S. N., & Petsangsri, S. (2018). Examining the motivation level of students in e-learning in higher education institution in Thailand : A case study. Education and Information Technologies, 23, 2947–2967.

Klerk, S. De, Veldkamp, B. P., & Eggen, T. J. H. M. (2018). A framework for designing and developing multimedia- based performance assessment in vocational education. Educational Technology Research and Development, 66(1), 147–171.

Koç, S., Liu, X., & Wachira, P. (2015). Assessment in online and blended learning environments. Information Age Publishing.

Koſar, G. (2016). A study of EFL instructors’ perceptions of blended learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 232, 736–744.

Lai, E. R., Beimers, J. N., & Dolan, B. (2011). Metacognition : A literature review research report. In Pearson’s Research Reports (Issue April).

Mahande, R. D., Susanto, A., & Surjono, H. D. (2017). The dynamics of mobile learning utilization in vocational education : Frame model perspective review. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 16(4), 65–76.

Mane, F., & Corbella, T. (2017). Developing and running an establishment skills survey: Guide to anticipating and matching skills and jobs volume 5 (Vol. 5). Publications Office of the European Union.

Marx, R. W., Blumenfeld, P. C., Krajcik, J. S., & Soloway, E. (1997). Enacting project-based science. The Elementary School Journal, 97(4), 342–358.

Mhouti, A. El, & Nasseh, A. (2017). Enhancing collaborative learning in Web 2 . 0-based e-learning systems : A design framework for building collaborative e-learning contents. Education and Information Technologies, 22, 2351–2364.

Moshman, D. (2018). Metacognitive theories revisited. Educational Psychology Review, 30(2), 599–606.

Otero, J. P. G. de. (2019). UNESCO-UNEVOC trends mapping: Innovation in TVET. UNESCO-UNEVOC.

Pavlova, M. (2009). The vocationalization of secondary education: The relationships between vocational and technology education. In International Handbook of Education for the Changing World of Work (pp. 1805–1821). Springer.

Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.

Sudira, P. (2017). TVET abad XXI: Filosofi, teori, konsep, dan strategi pembelajaran vokasional (Hartono (ed.); 2nd ed.). UNY Press.

Veenman, M. V. J., Bavelaar, L., Wolf, L. De, & Haaren, M. G. P. Van. (2014). The on-line assessment of metacognitive skills in a computerized learning environment. Learning and Individual Differences, 29, 123–130.

Widoyoko, S. E. P. (2011). The evaluation of the learning programme a practical guide for educators and prospective educators. Pustaka Pelajar.

Wimmers, P. F. (2016). Innovation and change in professional education 13 assessing competence in professional performance across disciplines and professions (M. Mentkowski (ed.); 1st ed.). Springer.

Xiong, Y., & Suen, H. K. (2018). Possibilities, challenges and future directions. International Review of Education, 64, 241–263.

Yusuf, Y., Rodding, R., Awang, H., & Mukhtar, I. (2017). Metacognitive strategies in promoting the development of generic competences in high TVE in Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 25, 247–256.

Zheng, L., Li, X., Zhang, X., & Sun, W. (2019). The effects of group metacognitive scaffolding on group metacognitive behaviors, group performance, and cognitive load in computer-supported collaborative learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 42(19), 13–24.

Zwart, D. P., Luit, J. E. H. Van, Noroozi, O., Goei, S. L., Zwart, D. P., Luit, J. E. H. Van, Noroozi, O., Goei, S. L., Zwart, D. P., Luit, J. E. H. Van, Noroozi, O., & Goei, S. L. (2017). The effects of digital learning material on students’ mathematics learning in vocational education The effects of digital learning material on students ’ mathematics learning in vocational education. Cogent Education, 29(1).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Our journal indexed by:

ISSN 2088-2866 (print) || ISSN 2476-9401 (online)

View Journal Visitor Stats