Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy to Reduce Academic Procrastination Behavior of High School Students During Distance Learning

Mutmainnah Mutmainnah, Efriyani Djuwita


The policy of implementing Distance Learning in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic brought changes to students' academic activities. Such condition may pose a risk that leads to academic procrastination, especially for boys at the high school level (SMA), a group that has been previously known to be prone to academic procrastination behavior. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) approach to reduce academic procrastination and develop adaptive strategies for young person. The participants of this study were 4 high school students, male, and aged 16-17 years who were recruited online through purposive sampling technique. Changes in the level of academic procrastination were measured based on the decrease in the irrational procrastination scale (IPS) scores during pre-test, post-test, and follow-up as well as qualitative results obtained based on interviews and observations of participants. The results of the intervention showed that there was a decrease in the participants' academic procrastination scores. Participants also reported that there were positive changes they felt after following the intervention.


Group CBT; Academic Procrastination; Distance Learning


American Psychological Association (2020). Psychology’s Understanding of the Challenges Related to the COVID-19 Global Pandemic in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/about/policy/covid-statement.pdf

Akram, A., Fu, C., Li, Y., Javed, M. Y., Lin, R., Jiang, Y., & Tang, Y. (2019). Predicting Students’ Academic Procrastination in Blended Learning Course Using Homework Submission Data. IEEE Access, 7, 102487–102498. https://doi.org/10.1109/access. 2019.2930867

Balkis, M., & Duru, E. (2017). Gender differences in the relationship between academic procrastination, satifaction with academic life and academic performance. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 15(1), 105–125. https://doi.org/10.14204/ejrep.41.16042

Biricik, Y. S., & Sivrikaya, M. H. (2020). COVID-19 Fear in Sports Sciences Students and Its Effect on Academic Procrastination Behavior. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 9(10), 50-56.

Brabender, V. M., Smolar, A. I., & Fallon, A. E. (2004). Essentials of group therapy (Vol. 29). John Wiley & Sons

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912–920. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8.

Corey, M. S., & Corey, G. (1997). Groups: Process and practice. Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company

Drumm, B. T., & Jong, A. S. (2020). A semester like no other: A student and lecturer perspective on the impact of Covid-19 on 3rd level academic life. All Ireland Journal of Higher Education, 12(3).

Ergene, Ö., & Kurtça, T. T. (2020). Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers’ Levels of Academic Procrastination and Online Learning Readiness. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 8(4), 52-66.

Fatimah, S., & Mahmudah, U. (2020). How E-Learning Affects Students' Mental Health During Covid-19 Pandemic: An Empirical Study. Dwija Cendekia: Jurnal Riset Pedagogik, 4(1), 114-124.

Grunschel, C., Patrzek, J., & Fries, S. (2013). Exploring reasons and consequences of academic procrastination: An interview study. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 841-861.

Haycock, L. A. (1993). The cognitive mediation of procrastination: An investigation of the relationship between procrastination and self-efficacy beliefs (Doctoral dissertation, ProQuest Information & Learning).

Hong, J. C., Lee, Y. F., & Ye, J. H. (2021). Procrastination predicts online self-regulated learning and online learning ineffectiveness during the coronavirus lockdown. Personality and individual differences, 174, 110673.

Jenei, K., Cassidy-Mathews, C., Virk, P., Lulie, B., & Closson, K. (2020). Challenges and opportunities for graduate students in public health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 111(3), 408–409. https://doi.org/10.17269/ s41997-020-00349-8

Jia, J., Jiang, Q., & Lin, X. H. (2020). Academic anxiety and self-handicapping among medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic: A moderated mediation model. Research Square, 1–22. DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-77015/v1

KEMENDIKBUD (2020). MEndikbut Terbitkan SE Tentang Pelaksanaan Pendidikan dalam Masa Darurat Covid-19. https://www.kemdikbud.go.id/main/blog/2020/03/mendikbud-terbitkan-se-tentang-pelaksanaan-pendidikan-dalam-masa-darurat-covid19. Diakses 5 Maret 2021

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26-33.

Komisi Perlindungan Anak Indonesia. (2020). Ada 246 Aduan di KPAI soal Belajar Daring, Siswa Keluhkan Tugas Menumpuk-Kuota. Retrieved from https://www.kpai.go.id/publikasi/ada-246-aduan-di-kpai-soal-belajar-daring-siswa-keluhkan-tugas-menumpuk-kuota

Krause, K., & Freund, A. M. (2014). Delay or procrastination–A comparison of self-report and behavioral measures of procrastination and their impact on affective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 63, 75-80.

Kuhfeld, M., Soland, J., Tarasawa, B., Johnson, A., Ruzek, E., & Liu, J. (2020). Projecting the potential impacts of COVID-19 school closures on academic achievement. (EdWorkingPaper: 20-226). https://doi.org/10.26300/cdrv-yw05

Milgram, N., & Toubiana, Y. (1999). Academic anxiety, academic procrastination, and parental involvement in students and their parents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(3), 345-361

Owens, A., & Newbegin, I. (1997). Procrastination in high school achievement: A causal structural model. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12, 869–887.

Özer, R.B.U. (2005). Academic Procrastination: Prevalence, Self-Reported Reasons, Gender Difference, and It’s Relation with Academic Achievement. Thesis. Middle East Technical University.

Ozer, B. U., & Ferrari, J. R. (2011). Gender orientation and academic procrastination: Exploring Turkish high school students. Individual Differences Research, 9(1), 33-40.

Ozer, B. U., Demir, A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2013). Reducing academic procrastination through a group treatment program: A pilot study. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 31(3), 127-135.

Prayitno, G. E., Siaputra, I. B., & Lasmono, H. K. (2013). Validasi Alat Ukur Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS). Calyptra, 2(1), 1-7.

Rahimi, S., & Vallerand, R. J. (2021). The role of passion and emotions in academic procrastination during a pandemic (COVID-19). Personality and Individual Differences, 179, 110852.

Sadeghi. M. 2019. A shift from classroom to distance learning: Advantages and limitations. Int. J. Res. English Educ., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 80–88

Saulsman, L., & Nathan, P. (2008). Put Off Procrastinating. Perth, Western Australia: Centre for Clinical.

Stallard, P. (2002). Cognitive behaviour therapy with children and young people: A selective review of key issues. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30(3), 297.

Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological bulletin, 133(1), 65.

Steel, P. (2010). Arousal, avoidant and decisional procrastinators: Do they exist? Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 926-934.

Steel, P., & Ferrari, J. (2013). Sex, education and procrastination: An epidemiological study of procrastinators’ characteristics from a global sample. European Journal of Personality, 27(1), 51-58

Suhadianto, S., & Pratitis, N. (2020). Eksplorasi Faktor Penyebab, Dampak dan Strategi untuk Penanganan Prokrastinasi Akademik pada Mahasiswa. Jurnal RAP (Riset Aktual Psikologi Universitas Negeri Padang), 10(2), 204-223.

Sirois, F., & Pychyl, T. (2013). Procrastination and the priority of short‐term mood regulation: Consequences for future self. Social and personality psychology compass, 7(2), 115-127.

Teng, M. F., Putra, Y. K., Ilham, M., & Pratama, W. A. Y. (2020). How much does distance learning affect social life and psychology of growing adolescent. Bulletin of Social Informatics Theory and Application, 4(2), 52-58.

Toker, B., & Avcı, R. (2015). Effect of cognitive-behavioral-theory-based skill training on academic procrastination behaviors of university students. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15(5).

Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological science, 8(6), 454-458.

Wang, C., & Zhao, H. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on anxiety in Chinese university students. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1168. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fpsyg.2020.01168.

World Health Organization. 2021. Covid-19 Clinical Management. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-clinical-2021-1. Diakses 5 Maret 2021

Yong, L. F. (2010). A study of the assaertiveness and academic procrastination of English and communication students at a private university. American Journal of Scientific Research, 9, 62- 72.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21831/pri.v4i2.44337


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Mutmainnah Mutmainnah, Efriyani Djuwita

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Our Journal is Indexed by:

sinta scholarcrossref


View the journal's visitor statistics
e-ISSN: 2614-7041 | p-ISSN: 2614-0403

Creative Commons License
Psychological Research and Intervention is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at https://journal.uny.ac.id/index.php/pri.