Investigating the Relationship between Creative Thinking and Entrepreneurial Spirit with STEMC-Based Project-Based Learning Models 

I. Zatya, Samudra University, Indonesia
S. Sulastri, Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia
S. Saminan, Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia
M. Rahmi, Jabal Ghafur University, Indonesia


Creative thinking is the cornerstone of entrepreneurship to encourage innovative ideas and entrepreneurial opportunities. The research aimed to determine a significant correlation between creative thinking and entrepreneurial spirit. The study used a correlation design. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. The sample was students in class X of SMAN 3 Langsa City. Data collection used a description test to determine the student’s level of creative thinking and questionnaires to determine the student’s entrepreneurial spirit. The data were tested using parametric statistics in the form of Pearson Product Moment correlations, which were analyzed using SPSS 20 statistical techniques. The results obtained that the correlation coefficient was 0.518. It shows that there is a correlation with sufficient criteria with an interpretation score between 0.40 <r ≤ 0.60. Furthermore, with df = 52, it obtained a significance level of 0.05 at 0.2732, so rxy = 0.518 > t table 0.2732. Then, Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, which indicates a significant correlation between creative thinking and students' entrepreneurial spirit. It is recommended that in the future, educators implement entrepreneurship-based STEM learning, which focuses on creativity and fosters students' confidence to start entrepreneurship.

Full Text:



Afifah, N., & Panggabean, S. (2019). Hubungan Berpikir Kreatif danSoftskill Terhadap Prestasi Belajar Kewirausahaan Prodi Pendidikan Matematika FKIP UMSU. Jurnal Numeracy , 6(1).

Afriana, J., Permanasari, A., & Fitriani, A. (2016). Penerapan project based learning terintegrasi STEM untuk meningkatkan literasi sains siswa ditinjau dari gender. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA, 2, 202-212.

Al-Harrasi, A., Al-Zadjali, E., & Al-Salti, Z. (2014). Factors Impacting Enterpreneurial Intention: A Literature Review. International Journal of Social, Management, Economics and Business Engineering, 8(8).

Almulla, M.A. (2020). The Effectiveness of the Project-Based Learning (PBL) Approach as a Way to Engage Students in Learning. SAGE Open, 10.

Areli, A. J. (2018). Mengembangkan Karakter Jiwa Kewirausahaan Peserta Didik SMK Negeri 1 Penukal Melalui Program Market Day. Jurnal Manajemen, Kepemimpinan, Dan Supervisi Pendidikan, 3(1).

Badlisyah, T., & Amsa, J. F. (2018). Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Two Stay Two Stray Terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa Pada Materi Reaksi Oksidasi Dan Reduksi dI SMA bina bangsa aceh besar. In Lantanida Journal , 6(1)

Behnamnia, N., Kamsin, A., & Ismail, M. A. B. (2020). The landscape of research on the use of digital game-based learning apps to nurture creativity among youngchildren: A review. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 37.

Bray, D.A., Girvan, D.C., & Chorcora, E.N. (2023). Students’ Perceptions of Pedagogy for 21st Century Learning Instrument (S-POP 21): Concept, Validation, and Initial Results. Thinking Skills and Creativity.

Cassar, G., & Friedman, H. (2009). Does Self-Efficacy Affect Eentrepreneurial Investment? Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 3(3), 241–260.

Clark, D.N., Reboud, S., Toutain, O., Ballereau, V., & Mazzarol, T. (2020). Entrepreneurial education: an entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Journal of Management & Organization, 1-21.

Cortázar, C., Nussbaum, M., Harcha, J., Alvares, D., López, F., Goñi, J., & Cabezas, V. (2021). Promoting critical thinking in an online, project-based course. Computers in Human Behavior, 119.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). USA: Pearson Education, Inc., 67

Crosling, G., Nair, M., & Vaithilingam, S. (2015). A creative learning ecosystem, quality of education and innovative capacity: a perspective from higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 40, 1147 - 1163.

Cubero, A. R., Rubio, T. F., & Hernández, A. (2022). Entrepreneurship:What matters most. Journal of Business Research, 144, 250–263. Https://

Fretschner, M., & Lampe, H.W., 2019. Detecting hidden sorting and alignment effects of entrepreneurship education. J. Small Bus. Manag. 57 (4), 1712–1737.

Fuller, B., Liu, Y., Bajaba, S., Marler, L. E., & Pratt, J. (2018). Examining how the personality, self-efficacy, and anticipatory cognitions of potential entrepreneurs shape their entrepreneurial intentions. Personality and Individual Differences, 125, 120–125.

Ghafar, A. (2020). Convergence between 21st Century Skills and Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education Institutes. The International Journal of Higher Education, 9, 218-229.

Ghasemi, F., Rastegar, A., Jahromi, R. G., & Marvdashti, R. R. (2011). The Relationship Between Creativity and Achievement Motivation with 71 High School Students’ Entrepreneurship. Procedia - Social and Behavioral

Hamed, Hamdy A. (2012). Problem based learning in social studies , LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany.

Hanif, S., Wijaya, A. F. C., & Winarno, N. (2019). Enhancing Students’ Creativity through STEM Project-Based Learning. Journal of Science Learning, 2(2), 50.

Hariyanto, V.L., Hidayah, R., Pratama, G.N., & Syamsudin, R.N. (2023). Project-Based Learning at Vocational Schools: A Case Study of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Learning Model. International Journal of Instruction, 16(3), 283-306

Jho, H., Hong, O., & Song, J. (2016). An analysis of STEM/STEAM teacher education in Korea with a case study of two schools from a community of practice perspective. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 12(7), 1843–1862.

Jiatong, W., Murad, M., Bajun, F., Tufail, M. S., Mirza, F., & Rafiq, M. (2021). Impact of Entrepreneurial Education, Mindset, and Creativity on Entrepreneurial Intention: Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Self- Efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.

Karabulut, A. T. (2016). Personality Traits on Entrepreneurial Intention. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 12–21.

Kuncahyono, & Aini, D. F. N. (2020). Pengembangan Pedoman E-Modul Berorientasi Student Active Learning Sebagai Pendukung Pembelajaran di Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Pendidikan Dasar Nusantara, 5(2), 292–304.

Kurniahtunnisa, Anngraito, Y., & Ridlo, S. (2020). Validity and Practicality of STEM PjBL Learning Tools for Respiratory System Material. In Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research (Vol. 443).

Le, L., Tran, T., & Tran, N.H. (2021). Challenges to STEM education in Vietnamese high school contexts. Heliyon, 7.

Lestari, N. A., Widodo, A., & Eliyawati, E. (2024). Promoting Students' Anticipatory Competency through the Rainwater Harvesting System Learning Project. Journal of Science Education Research, 8(1), 106-113. doi:

Li, Y., Wang, K., Xiao, Y., Froyd, J. E., & Nite, S. B. (2020). Research and Trends in STEM Education: a Systematic Analysis of Publicly Funded Projects. In International Journal of STEM Education (Vol. 7, Issue 17, pp. 1–17). Springer.

Liñán, F., & Fayolle, A. (2015). A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 907–933.

Mafruudloh, N., & Fitriati, R., (2020). The effect of project-based learning on the students' speaking ability. Journal of Culture, English Language Teaching, Literature and Linguistics, 7(1), E-ISSN:2621-9158 P-ISSN:2356-0401

Margot, K. C., & Kettler, T. (2019). Teachers’ perception of STEM integration and education: a systematic literature review. In International Journal of STEM Education (Vol. 6, Issue 1). Springer.

Millen, N.R., & Supahar, S. (2023). The Effectivity Study: Implementation of the Physics e-Module with PjBL-STEM Model to Describe Students' Creative Thinking Skills and Learning Motivation Profile. Journal of Science Education Research.

Mitasari, R.A., & Hdayah, R. (2022). Development of E-worksheet Based on Problem Based Learning to Improve Student’s Metacognitive Ability. Journal of Science Education Research, 6(2), 66.

Mutakinati, L., Anwari, I., & Yoshisuke, K. (2018). Analysis of students’ critical thinking skill of middle school through stem education project-based learning. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(1), 54–65.

Murad, M., Li, C., Ashraf, S. F., and Arora, S. (2021). The influence of entrepreneurial passion in the relationship between creativity and entrepreneurial intention. Int. J. Glob. Bus. Compet. 16, 51–60.

Neneh, B. N. (2019). From entrepreneurial alertness to entrepreneurial behavior: The role of trait competitiveness and proactive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 273–279.

Rahmazatullaili, R., Zubainur, C. M., & Munzir, S. (2017). Kemampuan berpikir kreatif dan pemecahan masalah siswa melalui penerapan model project based learning. Beta: Jurnal Tadris Matematika, 10(2), 166–183.

Richardson, C., & Mishra, P. (2018). Learning Environments that Support Student Creativity: Developing the SCALE. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 27, 45-54.

Saenab, S., Rahma Yunus, S., Husain, D., & Daeng Tata Raya Kampus FMIPA Parangtambung, J. (2019). Pengaruh Penggunaan Model Project Based Learning Terhadap Keterampilan Kolaborasi Mahasiswa Pendidikan IPA. Biology Science & Education, 8(1), 29–39

Santos, C., Rybska, E., Klichowski, M., Jankowiak, B., Jaskulska, S., Domingues, N., Carvalho, D., Rocha, T., Paredes, H., Martins, P., & Rocha, J. (2023). Science education through project-based learning: a case study. Procedia Computer Science, 219.

Sabaniah, N., Winarni, E.W & Jumiarni, D. (2019). Peningkatan Kemampuan Berpikir Kreatif Melalui Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik (LKPD) Berbasis Creative Problem Solving. Diklabio: Jurnal Pendidikan dan PembelajaranBiologi, 3(2).

Segundo-Marcos, R., Carrillo, A.M., Fernández, V.L., & Daza González, M.T. (2023). Age-related changes in creative thinking during late childhood: the contribution of Cooperative Learning. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 49

Şenel, M., & Bağçeci, B. (2019). Development of Creative Thinking Skills of Students Through Journal Writing. International Journal of Progressive Education, 15(5), 216–237.

Sharma, A., Dutt, H., Naveen Venkat Sai, C., & Naik, S. M. (2020). Impact of project based learning methodology in engineering. Procedia Computer Science, 172, 922–926.

Stohlmann, M., Moore, T., & Roehrig, G. (2012). Considerations for Teaching Integrated STEM Education. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research, 2(1), 28–34.

Sukirman. (2017). Jiwa Kewirausahaan dan Nilai Kewirausahaan Meningkatkan Kemandirian Usaha Melalui Perilaku Kewirausahaan. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Bisnis, 20(1).

Tantawy, M.M., Herbert, K., McNally, J.J., Mengel, T., Piperopoulos, P., & Foord, D. (2021). Bringing creativity back to entrepreneurship education: Creative self-efficacy, creative process engagement, and entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 15.

Torrance, E. P., & Aliotti, N. C. (1969). Sex Differences in Levels of Performance and Test-Retest Reliability on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Ability. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 3(1), 52–57. 6057.1969.tb00044.x

Ula, R., & Fauzi, A. (2021). The Influence of Business Plan Competition and Loan Provision on Nurturing the Spirit of Entrepreneurship Among Students.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Based on a work at

Accepted and published papers will be freely accessed in this website and the following abstracting & indexing databases:




This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.