Guided discovery model: An alternative to enhance students’ critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions

Sri Hastuti Noer(1*),

(1) Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lampung
(*) Corresponding Author


This current study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the guided discovery model in increasing students' critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions. Each experiment and control group consisted of 34 students of grade X of one high school class in Bandar Lampung city. The data were obtained through mathematical critical thinking skills test and critical thinking dispositions scale. The data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to obtain a comprehensive description of the impact of learning on the increase in both skills. The results showed that the increase of students’ critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions after learning was in the effective category. Other finding showed that the use of a contextual problem in the beginning of learning could trigger students to activate their prior knowledge. In this way, students used some strategies and made an appropriate conclusion confidently. This study suggested that the guided discovery model can be an alternative to improve students' critical thinking skills and critical thinking dispositions.


guided discovery model; critical thinking; critical thinking dispositions

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 20 |


Abdurahim, A. (2016). Keefektifan model pembelajaran resik ditinjau dari sikap, motivasi, dan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa SMP. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 3(2), 137–149.

Balım, A. G. (2009). The effects of discovery learning on students’ success and inquiry learning skills. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research Egitim Arastirmalari-Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 35(35), 1–20. Retrieved from

Chance, P. (1986). Thinking in the classroom: A survey of programs. Teachers College Press.

Ennis, R. H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. B. Baron & R. S. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice (pp. 9–26). New York, N.Y.: WH Freeman/Times Books/Henry Holt & Co.

Facione, N. C., & Facione, P. A. (1996). Externalizing the critical thinking in knowledge development and clinical judgment. Nursing Outlook, 44(3), 129–136.

Facione, P. A. (1990). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Research findings and recommendations. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.

Facione, P. A. (2000). The disposition toward critical thinking: Its character, measurement, and relationship to critical thinking skill. Informal Logic, 20(1), 61–84.

Facione, P. A., Facione, N. C., & Giancarlo, C. A. F. (1996). The motivation to think in working and learning. New Directions for Higher Education, 1996(96), 67–79.

Facione, P. A., Sanchez, C. A., Facione, N. C., & Gainen, J. (1995). The disposition toward critical thinking. The Journal of General Education, 44(1), 1–25.

Goleman, D., & Widodo, A. T. K. (1999). Kecerdasan emosi untuk mencapai puncak prestasi. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Halpern, D. F. (2013). Thought and knowledge: An introduction to critical thinking. New Jersey, NJ.: Psychology Press.

Ibrahim, I. (2011). Pengembanagan kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif siswa SMP dalam matematika melalui pendekatan advokasi dengan penyajian masalah open ended. Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

Innabi, H. (2003). Aspects of critical thinking in classroom instruction of secondary school mathematics teachers in Jordan. In The Mathematics Education into the 21st Century Project Proceedings of the International Conference (pp. 124–129). Brno. Retrieved from

Kennedy, M., Fisher, M. B., & Ennis, R. H. (1991). Critical thinking: Literature review and needed research. In L. Idol & B. F. Jones (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform (pp. 11–40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kilic, H. E., & Sen, A. (2014). Turkish adaptation study of UF/EMI critical thinking disposition instrument. Eğitim ve Bilim, 39(176), 1–12.

Liberma, L. (2013). Pengembangan bahan ajar dengan pendekatan scientific untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis dan self efficacy siswa. Universitas Negeri Medan.

Lipman, M. (1988). Critical thinking- what can it be? Educational Leadership, 8(1), 38–43. Retrieved from

McLaren, P., & Baysal, B. (2007). Kapitalistler ve işgalciler: Imparatorluğa karşı eleştirel bir pedagoji. Istanbul: Kalkedon.

Noddings, N. (2004). War, critical thinking, and self-understanding. Phi Delta Kappan, 487–495. Retrieved from

Nosich, G. (1994). Where to begin: How to design classes to teach for thinking. Educational Vision, 2(2), 20–21.

Nursyahidah, F., & Albab, I. U. (2017). Investigating student difficulties on integral calculus based on critical thinking aspects. Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika, 4(2), 211.

Ojose, B. (2015). Common misconceptions in mathematics: Strategies to correct them. University Press of America.

Ragatz, A. B. (2010). Di dalam ruang kelas matematika di Indonesia: Studi video TIMSS tentang kegiatan pembelajaran dan capaian siswa. Jakarta: Bank Dunia.

Schaefer, M. P. (2012). Determining methods for teaching character education in elementary schools. Northcentral University. Retrieved from

Uygulamaya, K., & Demirel, Ö. (2002). Eğitimde program geliştirme. Ankara: Baskı, Pegem A Yayıncılık.

Yang, E. F. Y., Liao, C. C. Y., Ching, E., Chang, T., & Chan, T.-W. (2010). The effectiveness of inductive discovery learning in 1: 1 mathematics classroom. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 743–747). Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education. Retrieved from 2010 Putrajaya Malaysia/ICCE2010 Main Proceedings/c6/short paper/C6SP200.pdf

Yohanes, R. S. (2010). Teori Vygotsky dan implikasinya terhadap pembelajaran matematika. Jurnal Widya Warta, 34, 854–1981.

Zeldin, A. L. (2000). Sources and effects of the self-efficacy beliefs of men with careers in mathematics, science, and technology. Emory University.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika indexed by:

Creative Commons License
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

All rights reserved. p-ISSN 2356-2684 | e-ISSN 2477-1503

View My Stats