Investigation of multiple intelligence of primary school students

Lukman Nulhakim, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Indonesia
Liska Berlian, Universitas Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa, Indonesia


The aim of this research is to investigate the ability of multiple intelligence (MI) of male and female students from primary school. The total sample was 71 students consisting of 35 experimental group students and 36 in the control group in a primary school in Cilegon City, 2016-2017 academic year. In this study, the experimental group consisted of male students using learning with the MI and the control group consisted of female students using learning with the MI approach. Analysis of data obtained from this study, using the Independent Sample t-test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The findings of this study indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the ability of MI in the experimental group and the control group, where the average score experimental group is higher. These results can be seen in the average score of MI ability in the experimental group is higher in visual-spatial, music, logical-mathematical, interpersonal and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. The average score of MI ability in the control group is higher in verbal-linguistic, naturalistic, and intrapersonal. These concluded that the results of the Investigation of Multiple Intelligence (MI) of Primary School Students in the experimental group (male students) were better than the control group (female students).


Multiple Intelligence; MI; Primary School Students

Full Text:

Fulltext PDF


Adcock, P. K. (2014). The longevity of multiple intelligence theory in education. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 80(4), 50.

Akkuzu, N., & Akçay, H. (2011). The design of a learning environment based on the theory of multiple intelligence and the study its effectiveness on the achievements, attitudes and retention of students. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 1003–1008.

Al-Kalbani, M. S., & Al-Wahaibi, S. S. (2015). Testing the multiple intelligences theory in Oman. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 190, 575–581.

Anitha, T. S., Vannessa, J., & Sreelakshmi, G. (2013). A study on the multiple intelligence levels of Secondary school students of Government and Private schools in Secunderabad. IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSR-JRME), 3(4), 12–18. Issue-4/C0341218.pdf?id=7370

Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. ASCD.

Astutie, D. D. (2017). Teaching English using a multiple intelligences approach. English Education Journal, 8(2), 245–257.

Barnard, L., & Olivarez, A. (2007). Self-estimates of multiple, G factor, and school-valued intelligences. North American Journal of Psychology, 9(3), 501–510.

Bråten, I., & Braasch, J. L. G. (2017). Key issues in research on students’ critical reading and learning in the 21st Century information society. In Improving Reading and Reading Engagement in the 21st Century (pp. 77–98). Springer Singapore.

Butler, H. A., Pentoney, C., & Bong, M. P. (2017). Predicting real-world outcomes: Critical thinking ability is a better predictor of life decisions than intelligence. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 25, 38–46.

Cahyanto, M. A. S., Ashadi, A., & Saputro, S. (2019). An analysis of gender difference on students’ misconceptions in learning the material classification and its changes. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA, 5(2).

Campbell, L., Campbell, B., & Dickinson, D. (2003). Teaching & learning through multiple intelligences (3rd ed.). Allyn and Bacon.

Coban, S., & Dubaz, İ. (2011). The relationship between active learning models in music lessons in elementary schools and multiple intelligence areas. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 684–690.

Delgoshaei, Y., & Delavari, N. (2012). Applying multiple-intelligence approach to education and analyzing its impact on cognitive development of pre-school children. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 32, 361–366.

Dolati, Z., & Tahriri, A. (2017). EFL teachers’ multiple intelligences and their classroom practice. SAGE Open, 7(3), 215824401772258.

Fitriani, D., & Syafe’i, A. F. R. (2014). Developing multiple intelligences in teaching English for young learners. Journal of English Language Teaching, 3(1), 189–194.

Flunger, B., Trautwein, U., Nagengast, B., Lüdtke, O., Niggli, A., & Schnyder, I. (2017). A person-centered approach to homework behavior: Students’ characteristics predict their homework learning type. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 48, 1–15.

Furnham, A. (2000). Thinking about intelligence. The Psychologist, 13(10), 510–515.

Furnham, A., & Akande, A. (2004). African parents’ estimates of their own and their children’s multiple intelligences. Current Psychology, 22(4), 281–294.

Furnham, A., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2005). Estimating one’s own and one’s relatives’ multiple intelligence: A study from Argentina. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 8(1), 12–20.

Furnham, A., Hosoe, T., & Tang, T. L.-P. (2001). Male hubris and female humility? A crosscultural study of ratings of self, parental, and sibling multiple intelligence in America, Britain, and Japan. Intelligence, 30(1), 101–115.

Furnham, A., & Mottabu, R. (2004). Sex and culture differences in the estimates of general and multiple intelligence: A study comparing British and Egyptian students. Individual Differences Research, 2(2), 82–96.

García, C. M., Ramiro, S. S., & Pérez, M. del M. S. (2017). The effectiveness of integrating multiple intelligences strategies in a bilingual education programme: A study of writing skills. International Journal of Education and Research, 5(2), 91–106.

Gardner, H. E. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. Basic Books.

Gardner, H. E. (2000). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. Hachette UK.

Gohar, M. J., & Sadeghi, N. (2015). Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory and foreign language achievement. International Journal of English and Education, 4(1), 206–216.

Gouws, F. E. (2007). Teaching and learning through multiple intelligences in the outcomes-based education classroom. Africa Education Review, 4(2), 60–74.

Gunduz, N., & Ozcan, D. (2016). The development of multiple intelligence with storytelling. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 15(1–2), 242–251.

Hajhashemi, K., Caltabiano, N., & Anderson, N. (2018). Multiple intelligences, motivations and learning experience regarding video-assisted subjects in a Rural University. International Journal of Instruction, 11(1), 167–182.

Hajhashemi, K., Caltabiano, N. J., Anderson, N., & Tabibzadeh, S. A. (2018). Students’ multiple intelligences in video-assisted learning environments. Journal of Computers in Education, 5(3), 329–348.

Hanafin, J. (2014). Multiple intelligences theory, action research, and teacher professional development: The Irish MI project. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(4), 126–141.

Hutasuhut, I. A. R., Lubis, M., & Daulay, S. (2019). Teaching material development of explanation text based on multiple intelligences on 11th Grade Students in Vocational High School 1 Padangsidimpuan. Budapest International Research and Critics in Linguistics and Education (BirLE) Journal, 2(4), 363–370.

İkiz, F. E., & Çakar, F. S. (2010). The relationship between multiple intelligences and academic achievements of second grade students. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2(3), 83–92.

Irby, D. M., & O’Sullivan, P. S. (2018). Developing and rewarding teachers as educators and scholars: remarkable progress and daunting challenges. Medical Education, 52(1), 58–67.

Jung, J.-H., & Chang, D.-R. (2017). Types of creativity—Fostering multiple intelligences in design convergence talents. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 23, 101–111.

Kaur, G., & Chhikara, S. (2008). Assessment of multiple intelligence among young adolescents (12-14 years). Journal of Human Ecology, 23(1), 7–11.

Kose, U., & Arslan, A. (2017). Optimization of self-learning in Computer Engineering courses: An intelligent software system supported by Artificial Neural Network and Vortex Optimization Algorithm. Computer Applications in Engineering Education, 25(1), 142–156.

Lösch, T., Lüdtke, O., Robitzsch, A., Kelava, A., Nagengast, B., & Trautwein, U. (2017). A well-rounded view: Using an interpersonal approach to predict achievement by academic self-concept and peer ratings of competence. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 51, 198–208.

Luthfiana, A., Ambarita, A., & Suwarjo, S. (2018). Developing worksheet based on multiple intelligences to optimize the creative thinking students. JIPM (Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika), 7(1), 1.

Mirzazadeh, M. (2012). Impacts of multiple intelligences on learning English in the ESL classroom. American Journal of Scientific Research, 60, 64–74.

Mnastersky, R. (2005). Studies show biological differences in how boys and girls learn about math, but social factors play a big role too. Chronicle of Higher Education, 51(26), A1–A16.

Mobashshernia, R., & Aghazadeh, S. M. (2018). The relationship between the interpersonal intelligence and reading comprehension achievement of Iranian bilingual and multilingual EFL learners. International Journal of Research in English Education, 3(2), 8–9.

Munawar, K., & Tariq, O. (2018). Exploring relationship between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction among elderly Pakistani Muslims. Journal of Religion and Health, 57(3), 781–795.

Murray, S., & Moore, K. (2012). Inclusion through multiple intelligences. Journal of Student Engagement: Education Matters, 2(1), 42–48.

Mustafa, S. A. Y., Abu Jado, S., & Onoz, S. (2014). Types of multiple intelligences among undergraduate students at Yarmouk University in light of Gardner’s theory. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(6), 140–153.

Napiere, M. B. (2012). Multiple intelligence-based learning preferences of students, modes of delivery and assessment tools used in Lourdes College. IAMURE International Journal of Education, 1(1).

Neto, F., Ruiz, F., & Furnham, A. (2008). Sex differences in self‐estimation of multiple intelligences among Portuguese adolescents. High Ability Studies, 19(2), 189–204.

Niemiec, C. P., Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., Bernstein, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). The antecedents and consequences of autonomous self-regulation for college: A self-determination theory perspective on socialization. Journal of Adolescence, 29(5), 761–775.

Peden, M. E., Okely, A. D., Eady, M. J., & Jones, R. A. (2018). What is the impact of professional learning on physical activity interventions among preschool children? A systematic review. Clinical Obesity, 8(4), 285–299.

Pratiwi, W. N., Rochintaniawati, D., & Agustin, R. R. (2018). The effect of multiple intelligence-based learning towards students’ concept mastery and interest in learning matter. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1013, 012075.

Ratnasari, I. T., Wardani, S., & Nuswowati, M. (2018). The impact of multiple intelligences approach through quantum teaching model toward the scientific attitude and science learning outcomes in the fourth grade students. Journal of Primary Education, 7(2), 146–154.

Saban, A. (2015). Conceptions of learning in light of the MI theory. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 231–237.

Samsudin, M. A., Haniza, N. H., Talib, C. A., & Ibrahim, H. M. M. (2015). The relationship between multiple intelligences with preferred science teaching and science process skills. Journal of Education and Learning, 9(1), 53–59.

Şener, S., & Çokçalışkan, A. (2018). An investigation between multiple intelligences and learning styles. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(2), 125–132.

Sengupta, A. (2017). Internet-based approach to multiple intelligences: Multiple provisions for multiple learners. Journal of Technology for ELT, 7(2).

Shearer, C. B. (2018). Multiple intelligences in teaching and education: Lessons learned from neuroscience. Journal of Intelligence, 6(3), 38.

Shearer, C. B., & Karanian, J. M. (2017). The neuroscience of intelligence: Empirical support for the theory of multiple intelligences? Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 6, 211–223.

Stanciu, D., Orban, I., & Bocos, M. (2011). Applying the multiple intelligences theory into pedagogical practice. Lessons from the Romanian primary education system. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 11, 92–96.

Sternberg, R. J. (2014). Teaching about the nature of intelligence. Intelligence, 42, 176–179.

Sutcu, N. D., Sutcu, K., & Bulut, I. (2015). Examination of the relationship between classroom teachers’ multiple intelligence areas and their students’ academic achievements. The Anthropologist, 22(2), 309–317.

Uswatun, D. A., & Rohaeti, E. (2015). Perangkat pembelajaran IPA berbasis inkuiri untuk meningkatkan critical thinking skills dan scientific attitude siswa. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA, 1(2), 138.

Utami, D. N., & Aznam, N. (2020). Pengembangan LKPD IPA “Pesona Pantai Parangtris” berbasis learning cycle 7E beserta efeknya terhadap critical thinking. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA, 6(1).

Voogt, J., & Knezek, G. (2008). International handbook of information technology in primary and secondary education. Springer Science & Business Media.

Winarti, A., Yuanita, L., & Nur, M. (2019). The effectiveness of multiple intelligences based teaching strategy in enhancing the multiple intelligences and science process skills of junior High School students. Journal of Technology and Science Education, 9(2), 122.

Wolff, F., Nagy, N., Helm, F., & Möller, J. (2018). Testing the internal/external frame of reference model of academic achievement and academic self-concept with open self-concept reports. Learning and Instruction, 55, 58–66.

Yalmanci, S. G., & Gozum, A. I. C. (2013). The effects of multiple intelligence theory based teaching on students’ achievement and retention of knowledge (example of the enzymes subject). International Journal on New Trends in Education and Their Implications, 4(3), 27–36.

Yerizon, Y., Putra, A. A., & Subhan, M. (2018). Student responses toward student worksheets based on discovery learning for students with intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 335, 012113.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA indexed by:

Creative Commons License
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan IPA by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

All rights reserved. p-ISSN: 2406-9205 | e-ISSN: 2477-4820

View My Stats