Cyber resilience revisited: Law and international relations

Ika Riswanti Putranti, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Marten Hanura, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Safrida Alivia Sri Ananda, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
Gawinda Nura Nabila, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia


Cyber space is increasingly playing an important role in the global world, affecting the pattern of relations between countries. The issue of non-traditional security threats is shifting towards the threat typology associated with cyber space. The concept of national security began to be complemented by a national cyber security strategy to support the security of its national interests. Where the country needs to ensure the security of cyber ecosystems to maintain national economic stability. The large flow data and information increasingly large and complex, and brings hidden costs in the form of cyber security threats. Cyber security concepts that are considered not responsive and resilient in dealing with and overcoming cyber attacks can occur at any time with patterns and types that continue to evolve. The concept of cyber security should begin to be developed into cyber security that has patterns of recovery, adaptation, and evolution so as to be able to answer the dynamics of challenges in international trade. Interrupted cyber systems in international sphere will potentially cause disruption of international relations because the threat of losses caused not only affects one country. The increasingly complex international law context and involving big data should be one of the top priorities for cyber resilience strategies. This paper starts by explaining the state of play of cyber resilience in international relations and law. Next, analysis why the concept of cyber resilience in the perspective of international relations and international law needs to be re-visited to face challenges in the digital economy.


cyber resilience; cyber security; international relations; law; digital economy

Full Text:



Ahmedov, I. (2020). The Impact of Digital Economy on International Trade. European Journal of Business and Management Research, 5(4).

Annarelli, A., Nonino, F., & Palombi, G. (n.d.). Understanding the management of cyber resilient systems. Elsevier Ltd.

ASEAN. (2020). ASEAN-EU Statement on Cybersecurity Cooperation. [Retrieved at January 19, 2021]

ASEAN Studies Centre. (2020). Peningkatan Keamanan Siber ASEAN Melalui Kerjasama Keamanan Siber dengan Australia. Pusat Studi ASEAN.

Bechara, F. R., & Schuch, S. B. (2020). Cybersecurity and Global Regulatory Challenges. Emerald Publishing Limited, 1359–0790.

BSSN. (2020a). Indonesian Cybersecurity Strategy. [Retrieved at January 20, 2021]

BSSN. (2020b, October 8). Dalam Ministerial Conference on Cybersecurity BSSN Serukan Kesiapan Berkolaborasi dengan Negara ASEAN untuk Perkuat Keamanan Siber. [Retrieved at January 21, 2021]

Budapest Convention. (2001). Budapest: Convention on Cybercrime. European Treaty Series - No. 185.

Cassleman, R. (2020). Expanding Cyber Resilience Beyond Convention Resiliency and Nuclear Command, Control, and Communications. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS).

Chang, L. Y. C., & Coppel, N. (2020). Building Cyber Security Awareness in a Developing Country: Lessons from Myanmar. Elsevier Ltd., 0167–4048.

Crespigny, M. de. (2012). Building Cyber-Resilience to Tackle Threats. Information Security Forum.

Causevic, A. (2017). Facing an Unpredictable Threat: Is NATO Ideally Placed to Manage Climate Change as a Non Traditional Threat Multiplier? Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes, 16(2), 59–80.

Devine, M. S. (2011). Sinister Trends in Cyber threats: European Guidelines for Resilience and Cybersecurity. Elsevier Ltd., 3.

European Commission. (2013). Impact Assessment Accompanying the Document Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning Measures to Ensure a High Level of Network and Information Security across the Union. Commission Staff Working Document.

Dupont, B. (2019). The cyber-resilience of financial institutions: Significance and applicability. Journal of Cybersecurity, 5(1).

Hagen, J. (2017). Critical Infrastructure Protection. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection.

Hanisch, M. (2016). What is Resilience? Ambiguities of a Key Term. Federal Academy for Security Policy.

Hanish, M. (2017). Forward, Resilience! —: Ideas on how to Strengthen Resilience in Germany. Federal Academy for Security Policy.

Harrop, W., & Matteson, A. (n.d.). Cyber Resilience: A Review of Critical National Infrastructure and Cyber-Security Protection Measures Applied in the UK and USA. In Current and Emerging Trends in Cyber Operations (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Hausken, K. (2020). Cyber Resilience in Firms, Organisations, and Societies. Elsevier Ltd., 2542–6605.

Heinl, C. (2014). Regional Cybersecurity: Moving Toward a Resilient ASEAN Cybersecurity Regime. Asia Policy, 18, 131–160.

Indonesia Act. (2008). Indonesia Act 2008 Concerning Information and Technology.

IWS. (2021). Stanford Draft. [Retrieved at January 18, 2021]

Kearney. (2021). Cybersecurity in ASEAN: An Urgent Call to Action. [Retrieved at January 20, 2021]

Kemenkeu. (2020, October 22). Pemerintah Berusaha Mempersempit Kesenjangan Digital. [Retrieved at January 17, 2021]

Kominfo. (2020, September 11). Tiga Stretagi Kominfo dalam Tangani Hoaks, dan Misinformasi. [Retrieved at January 16, 2021]

Kompas. (2020, May 3). Data Pengguna Tokopedia Bocor Cek Apakah Akun Anda Terdampak. [Retrieved at January 16, 2021]

Kramer, F. D. (2010). An Integrated Governmental Strategy for Progress. Atlantic Council JSTOR.

Lees, M. J., Crawford, M., & Jansen, C. (2018). Towards Industrial Cybersecurity Resilience of Multinational Corporations. Elsevier Ltd., 2405–8963.

Linkov, I., & Kott, A. (n.d.). Fundamental Concepts of Cyber Resilience: Introduction and Overview. In Cyber Resilience of Systems and Networks (pp. 1–25). Springer International Publishing.

Mačák, K. (2016). Is the International Law of Cybersecurity in Crisis? NATO CCD COE.

Media Indonesia. (2018, April 20). Keamanan Siber dan Smart City Jadi Fokus KTT ASEAN. [Retrieved at January 21, 2021]

OECD. (2015). OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2015. [Retrieved at January 20, 2021]

Onwubiko, C. (n.d.). Focusing on the Recovery Aspects of Cyber Resilience. Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain & Cyber Security.

Pauletto, C. (2020). Information and Telecommunications Diplomacy in the Context of International Security at United Nations. Emerald Publishing Limited, 30.

Putranti, I.R., (2015). Developing of Cyber Resilience System of the International Trade Facilitations: Specific reference Indonesia, UNCITRAL Congress 2015,

Putranti, I.R. (2020). Cyber Resilience of Small and Medium Enterprises In Semarang City. Jurnal Sosial dan Pembangunan MIMBAR, Vol 36 No. 2, pp. 288-297,

Putranti, I.R. (2020). Smartcity : Model Ketahanan Siber Untuk Usaha Kecil Dan Menengah, Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, Vol 36 No. 2, pp.359-379,

Reich, P. C., & Gelbstein, E. (2012). Law, Policy and Technology: Cyberterrorism, Information Warfare and Internet Immobilisation.

Riswanti, I. P. (2019). Developing of Cyber Resilience System of the International Facilitations: Specific Reference Indonesia.

Roege, P. E., Collier, Z. A., Chevardin, V., Chouinard, P., Florin, M. V., Lambert, J. H., & Todorovic, B. (2017). Bridging the gap from cyber security to resilience. In Resilience and Risk (pp. 383–414). Springer

Rutkowski, A. (2011). Public International Law of the International Telecommunication Instruments: Cyber Security Treaty Provisions Since 1850. 13, 13–31.

Russel, A. L. (2014). Cyber Blockades. Georgetown University Press.

Sekretariat Nasional ASEAN-Indonesia. (2020, August 5). Interpol: Kejahatan Siber Meningkat Selama Pandemi. [Retrieved at January 17, 2021]

Shad, M. R. (2019). Cyber Threat Landscape and Readiness Challenge of Pakistan. Institute of Strategic Studies Islamabad, 39(1), 1–19.

Siciliano, G. G., & Gaudenzi, B. (2018). The Role of Supply Chain Resilience on IT and Cyber Disruptions. Springer International Publishing.

Sindo News. (2015). Potensi Indonesia Menjadi Kekuatan Ekonomi Global. [Retrieved at January 21, 2021]

Sofaer, A. D. (n.d.). Toward an International Convention on Cyber Security. Hoover Press.

Srinivas, K., & Yasmeen, S. (2017). A Study on Employee Engagement in Small and Medium Enterprises in Digital Economy. Zenon Academic Publishing, 57–64(Millennial Workforce-A Contemplation).

The Jakarta Post. (2020, April 21). In challenging times, digital economy and e-commerce can chart a path toward recovery. [Retrieved at January 18, 2021]

The Straits Times Asia. (2017, June 29). Cyberattack: Ransomware cases reported in Asia. [Retrieved at January 22, 2021]

Tonhauser, M., & Ristvej, J. (2019). Disruptive Acts in Cyberspace, Steps to Improve Cyber Resilience at National Level. Elsevier Ltd.

Watanabe, K. (2019). PPP (Public-Private Partnership) - Based Cyber Resilience Enhancement Efforts for National Critical Infrastructures Protection in Japan. Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019, LNCS 11260, 169–178.

WCO. (2021). Digital Customs: The Opportunities of the Information Age. [Retrieved at January 22, 2021]

Weforum. (2021). Digital ASEAN. [Retrieved at January 18, 2021]

WTO. (2020). World Trade Report 2020: Government Policies to Promote Innovation in the Digital Age. [Retrieved at January 21, 2021]

Bodeau, Deborah, and Graubart, R. (2011). “Cyber Resiliency Engineering Framework”. MITRE Report, page 37.

Kahan, Jerome H., Allen, Andrew C., and George, Justin K. (2009). “An Operational Framework for Resilience.” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, page 10.

Kott, A., and Linkov, I. (2019). Cyber Resilience of Systems and Networks. USA: Springer International Publishing AG.

IT Governance UK. (2021). “What is Cyber Resilience?” Retrieved from, Accessed on January 5, 2021. [daring].

Wall, David S. (2001). Crime and the Internet. New York: Routledge.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Ika Riswanti Putranti, Marten Hanura, Safrida Alivia Sri Ananda, Gawinda Nura Nabila

Supervised by

RJI Main logo

Our Journal has been Indexed by


Creative Commons License
Journal of Social Studies (JSS) by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

View My Stats