Pujiharto Pujiharto, Wening Udasmoro, Mutiah Amini


This study aims to describe characterization of pre-Indonesian characters and the
relationship between characterization patterns and the process of the appearance of pre-
Indonesian identities in pre-Indonesian stories. The data sources were stories entitled: (1)
“Busono” by Raden Mas Tirto Adhi Soerjo, (2) “Tjerita Si Tjonat” by F.D.J. Pangemanan,
(3) “Tjerita Njai Dasima” by G. Francis, (4) “Tjerita Njonja Kong Hong Nio” and (5)
“Tjerita Nji Paina” by H. Kommer. Several concepts to answer the problems were pre-
Indonesian identities, characterization, and focalization. The findings are as follows. First,
characters in pre-Indonesian stories and the relationship with pre-Indonesian identities
show that some are self-aware and some are not. Second, the existence of characters in
pre-Indonesian stories with characterization shows that pre-Indonesian identities have
a relationship with the authors’ focalization.

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