Students and teachers perspective on self-risk management in outdoor classroom

Alvin Raj Santhanadass, Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
Gunathevan Elumalai, Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia
Yudik Prasetyo, Faculty of Sports Science, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Jaffry Bin Zakaria, Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia


This study is carried out to identify students’ and teachers’ perception towards self-risk management in outdoor learning classroom. This survey was conducted among 330 subjects (165 students and 165 teachers) who were randomly selected from schools in Penampang district, Sabah. The students’ self-risk management questionnaire was created by the researchers and used as instrument with validity r = .80 Meanwhile, the reliability r = .78. was obtained after the pilot study. Findings from the study showed, there were negative perception on students’ confidence level towards teachers when there were injuries and first aid was provided. Students also gave negative response; they claimed that teachers fail to identify type of injuries that occurred among students when doing activities outside the classroom. Students were also uncertain of teachers’ abilities and expertise in performing first aid treatment to students when injuries occur. The students also not confident with the equipment used in carrying out activities outside the classroom. However, there are positive responses from teachers and students in identifying risky places and avoiding learning activities outside the classroom. Students also exhibit positive response for explanation of safety measures needed by teachers before carrying out activities outside the classroom. This study shows that students’ self-risk management can encourage their involvement in outdoor learning activities efficiently. The teachers can also improve themselves especially in first aid knowledge and preparation of teaching aids and equipment for outdoor learning purpose.


Validity, Reliability, Self-Risk Management and Standard Operating Procedure

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